Language, Learning & Literacy (L3) Review

Image: Language, Learning & Literacy (L3) Review
Authors Natalie Johnston-Anderson
Evaluator company Centre for Education Statistics and Evaluation
Year 2020
Classification Other evidence
Study type Expert opinion
Evaluation type Process


The aim of this review was to examine the design, content and imlementation of L3. We used three methods: document review, quantitative survey analysis and qualitative interview analysis.

Key findings included:

  • Whilst L3 drew on some research, it did not draw on the full range of available research into early literacy teaching.
  • L3 provides only limited ‘systematic’ teaching and a form of ‘explicit’ teaching that is not consistent with current best practice, especially with regards to phonics and phonemic awareness.
  • Teachers reported that a key strength of L3 was a substantial change in their knowledge, practice and confidence. Many reported that they were impressed with the training model, especially the in-school coaching.
  • Teachers reported that some of the L3 strategies were time consuming and challenging to implement, with some students needing more support than L3 offers.


  • Evaluation evidence bank

Business Unit:

  • Centre for Education Statistics and Evaluation
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