Stage 5 reading - Connecting ideas

Learning intention

Students will learn to identify devices that link information across and within texts and develop an understanding of how authors connect ideas.

Syllabus outcome (2022)

  • EN5-RVL-01: uses a range of personal, creative and critical strategies to interpret complex texts
  • EN5-URB-01: evaluates how texts represent ideas and experiences, and how they can affirm or challenge values and attitudes

Syllabus outcome (2012)*

  • EN5-2A: effectively uses and critically assesses a wide range of processes, skills, strategies and knowledge for responding to and composing a wide range of texts in different media and technologies
  • EN5-8D: questions, challenges and evaluates cultural assumptions in texts and their effects on meaning.

*Note: Visit the Leading curriculum K-12 website for more information on the syllabus implementation timeline.

National Literacy Learning Progression

Understanding texts

  • UnT9: summarises the text identifying key details only (comprehension); draws inferences, synthesising clues and evidence across a text (comprehension); builds meaning by actively linking ideas from a number of texts or a range of digital sources (comprehension); uses knowledge of a broader range of cohesive devices to track meaning (e.g. word associations) (see Grammar) (process); selects reading/viewing strategies appropriate to reading purpose (e.g. scans text for evidence) (process); analyses language and visual features in texts using metalanguage (e.g. cohesion, interpretation, figurative) (vocabulary)

  • UnT10: draws inferences using evidence from the text and discounting possible inferences that are not supported by the text (comprehension); integrates automatically a range of processes such as predicting, confirming predictions, monitoring, and connecting relevant elements of the text to build meaning (process); describes how sophisticated cohesive devices establish patterns of meaning (e.g. class-subclass) (process)

  • UnT11: analyses the cumulative impact of use of language features and vocabulary across texts (comprehension); strategically adjusts the processes of reading and viewing to build meaning according to the demands of tasks and texts (P) (comprehension) (process)

NAPLAN item descriptors

The relevant NAPLAN item descriptors are included in the resource, available for download on this page.

Task outline

Full task descriptions are included in the resource, available for download on this page.

Sequencing events

Students sequence a deconstructed text using evidence clues such as temporal connectives and text structural elements.

Finding links within texts

Students use annotations to show connections between text elements and texts.

Pronoun referencing

Students identify and track proper nouns/nouns and corresponding pronouns in texts. Students use proximal referencing to maintain meaning when reading.

Lexical chains

Students identify sequences of related words in texts to track ideas and build understanding on a topic.


Students brainstorms and categorises connectives into the way they connect ideas.


  • Teaching and learning

Business Unit:

  • Educational Standards
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