Other English K-2 resources

Additional subject-specific resources to support implementation of the English K-2 syllabus.

Grapheme-phoneme correspondences (GPC) instructional sequence

This is a suggested sequence for introducing GPCs in a systematic, explicit and cumulative way in Kindergarten through to Year 2.


This sample instructional sequence is an optional resource that represents one way to plan for student learning of the phonics code. Schools are strongly encouraged to make changes to meet the learning needs of all students.

The instructional sequence includes:

  • suggested clusters of GPCs for blending and segmenting practice
  • the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) symbols to guide the correct pronunciation of phonemes in Standard Australian English
  • sample words for each GPC, including embedded opportunities for developing morphemic knowledge aligned with Spelling outcomes and content
  • opportunities for consolidation
  • coding to identify repeated content and less frequently used grapheme representations (alternative spellings)
  • sample high-frequency words for Early Stage 1
  • supporting information for teachers which includes content related to phonic, orthographic, morphemic and etymological components.

Download GPC instructional sequence

Research base

The evidence base for this resource is:

Alignment to system priorities and, or needs

These resources clearly and explicitly align to:

Alignment to School Excellence Framework

These resources support the School Excellence Framework by incorporating the following domains and themes.

Learning domain


  • Curriculum: Curriculum provision, Teaching and learning programs
  • Assessment: Whole school monitoring of student learning
  • Student performance measures: NAPLAN


Teaching domain


  • Effective classroom practice: Lesson planning, Explicit teaching
  • Learning and development: Collaborative practice and feedback; Expertise and innovation
Leading domain



Educational leadership: Instructional leadership



Email questions, comments and feedback about these resources to english.curriculum@det.nsw.edu.au.

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