The care continuum
Interventions for all, some and individual students
Students may require different types of intervention delivered in different ways along a continuum of care - from prevention to intensive individual support to best meet their needs. Schools can also access universal, guided and strategic support for behaviour through the School Success Model.
The continuum of care includes interventions for:
- all students - creating a safe and respectful learning environment
- some students - providing early intervention and targeted support for students at risk of developing negative behaviours
- a few students - supporting students with complex and challenging behaviour needs through intense, individual interventions.
Applying the care continuum
For more detailed information about the care continuum and how to apply it please refer to the Applying the Care Continuum webpage.
To learn more
- about behaviour, including risk and resilience, visit the Understanding Behaviour website.
- about the elements of effective behaviour programs, visit the Effective behaviour website.
- about ACARA Personal and Social Capabilities.
Information about this resource
The Care Continuum resources facilitate implementation of a whole-school prevention-focused positive behaviour approach to behaviour support to support the needs of all students.
To provide feedback on this resource, please email firstname.lastname@example.org.
This resource supports teacher and school needs by providing:
- high quality resources to support implementation of prevention focussed, positive behaviour care continuum
- supports for all students at their point of need
This resource contributes towards the key areas encompassed in the Student Behaviour Strategy of providing schools, teachers, students and parents with the supports and resources needed to understand the Care Continuum, including a resource hub through:
- understanding of the care continuum for prevention, early intervention, targeted intervention and individual intervention
- using principles of good practice in behaviour support
- providing information for parents, carers and the community to develop meaningful engagement and partnerships to better support their children.
School leaders and teachers across all school settings.
This resource is able to be used without assistance, as a stand-alone resource and/or linked to professional learning.
All students P-12.
When to use
To better understand the Care Continuum, including prevention, early intervention, targeted intervention, and individual intervention. There are different entry points for each student depending on their level of need. An intervention can begin at any point across the continuum.
Can be used at any time when teachers require information to better support student behaviour.
System priorities and/or needs
This resource aligns with:
- the Premier’s Priorities to improve outcomes in literacy and numeracy and HSC attainment.
- the New South Wales Department of Education’s strategic outcomes of improving academic achievement and wellbeing, students reporting a sense of belonging, expectations for success and advocacy at school.
- need identified by Delivery Support to build teacher capacity in understanding the Care Continuum.
- Student Behaviour Strategy.
- Learning domain – Wellbeing (Caring for students, A planned approach to wellbeing, Individual learning needs, Behaviour).
- Teaching domain - Effective classroom practice (Classroom management).
- NESA syllabus documents – personal and social capabilities in all K-10 syllabi, and PDHPE K-10 syllabus Health Wellbeing and Relationships content strand outcomes.
- Australian Professional Standards for Teachers.
- Standard 4, particularly 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4
- Disability Standards for Education 2005.
- Wellbeing Framework - behaviour, discipline and character education.
- Achieving School Excellence in Wellbeing and Inclusion.
- School Success Model – 3 – Types of support for schools.
Consulted with: Delivery Support team, Aboriginal Partnerships and Outcomes, Inclusion and Wellbeing as part of the development of the behaviour support toolkit.
Reviewed by: Behaviour Services
Last updated: July 2022
Review date: December 2022
Byers, T., Liu, K., Knock, A., & Imms, W. (2018). A systematic review of the effects of learning environments on student learning outcomes. http://www.iletc.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/TR4_Web.pdf
Cason-Clemons, D. (2020). A systemic review of the influence of Positive Behavior Intervention Support (PBIS) on student behavior. Trevecca Nazarene University ProQuest Dissertations Publishing. 2020. 27955528. https://www.proquest.com/openview/8c547fd72b89a0df5d04333d66480f00/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=18750&diss=y.
Centre for Education Statistics and Evaluation. (2020). What works best: 2020 update. NSW Department of Education. https://www.cese.nsw.gov.au/images/stories/PDF/What-works-best-2020-update.pdf
Centre on Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports. (2022). Positive behavioral interventions and supports, www.pbis.org.
Centre on Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports. (2022). Supporting and responding to students’ social, emotional and behavioral needs: evidence-based practices for educator, https://assets-global.website-files.com/5d3725188825e071f1670246/626c27c785879e08c1a7c8ea_Supporting%20and%20Responding%20to%20Students%E2%80%99%20Social%2C%20Emotional%2C%20and%20Behavioral%20Needs.pdf
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Goss, P., & Sonneman, J. (2017). Engaging students. Creating classrooms that improve learning. https://grattan.edu.au/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/Engaging-students-creating-classrooms-that-improve-learning.pdf
Hahn, R., Fuqua-Whitley, D., Wethington, H., Lowry, J., Crosby, A., Fullilove, M., Johnson, R., Liberman, A., Moscicki, E., Price, L., Snyder, S., Tuma, F., Cory, S., Stone, G., Mukhopadhaya, K., Chattopadhyay, S., Dahlebrg, L. (2017). Effectiveness of universal school-based programs to prevent violent and aggressive behaviour: A systematic review, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 33(2), p114-129.
NSW Ombudsman. (2017). NSW Ombudsman Inquiry into behaviour management in schools. https://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/la/papers/Pages/tabled-paper-details.aspx?pk=71578&houseCode=la
Pearce, N., Cross, D., Epstein, M., Johnston, R., & Legge, E. (2019). Strengthening school and system capacity to implement effective interventions to support student behaviour and wellbeing in NSW public schools: An evidence review. Telethon Kids Institute: Perth, Western Australia.
Solomon, B. G., Klien, S. A., Hintze, J. M., Cressey, J. M., Peller, S. (2012). A meta-analysis of school-wide positive behavior support: an exploratory study using single-case synthesis. Psychology in the Schools, 49(2), 105-121. https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.20625