Classroom practice

Reflecting on classroom practice assists teachers to develop and use evidence-based classroom management strategies. Using strategies to reflect on teacher practice improves teaching and promotes student learning and positive behaviour.

Information about this resource

This resource supports teacher and school needs by providing:

  • high quality resources to support teachers to understand and develop skills in positive behaviour by using consistent, inclusive and supportive classroom and playground management approaches

  • strategies to create positive classroom and playground environments

  • strategies for including student voice in the classroom

  • reflecting on teacher practice.

The resources aligns to identified needs in the three key areas of practice, support and ongoing improvement. They provide schools, teachers, students and parents with the supports and practice resources needed to understand the effective evidence based positive behaviour classroom management systems and practices, including a resource hub. 

Professional audience

School leaders and teachers across all school settings.

This resource is able to be used without assistance, as a stand-alone resource and/or linked to professional learning.

Student audience

All students P-12.

When to use

To build knowledge and skills in effective classroom management and organisation to better support student behaviour to improve wellbeing and engagement in learning.


Can be used at any time when teachers require information on and to build their skills in establishing, monitoring and reviewing their classroom practice to better support student behaviour and learning; having difficult conversations; and reflecting on their pedagogy.


System priorities and/or needs

This resource aligns with:

  • the Premier’s Priorities to improve outcomes in literacy and numeracy and HSC attainment.

  • Our Plan for NSW Public Education’s direction and priorities of strengthening student wellbeing and development and advancing equitable outcomes, opportunities and experiences.

  • Need identified by Delivery Support to build teacher capacity in understanding the Care Continuum.

School Excellence Framework

  • Learning domain – Wellbeing (Caring for students, A planned approach to wellbeing, Individual learning needs, Behaviour) 

  • Teaching domain - Effective classroom practice (Classroom management) 

Relevant frameworks

Existing resources

Consulted with: Delivery Support team, Aboriginal Partnerships and Outcomes, Inclusion and Wellbeing as part of the development of the behaviour support toolkit. 

Reviewed by: Behaviour Services

Last updated: December 2023

Review date: December 2024 

Barrett, P. (2018). Top 10 ways to innovate the primary school classroom. Gratnells- Enhancing the learning environment:

Barrett, P., Barrett, L., Davies, F., & Zhang, Y. (2015). Clever classrooms. University of Salford Manchester:

Bernard, M. E. (2006). Providing all children with the foundations for achievement, well-being and positive relationship. Australian Scholarship Group Time Mark. 

Byers, T., Liu, K., Knock, A., & Imms, W. (2018). A systematic review of the effects of learning environments on student learning outcomes.

Center for Instructional and behavioural research in schools. (n.d.). Effective instructional learning set up. 

Centre for Children and Young People. (2014). Wellbeing in schools: secondary school students: survey results. Southern Cross University ePublications:

Centre for Children and Young People. (2014). Wellbeing schools: research project: primary school students: summary of focus group findings. Southern Cross University: ePublications@SCU.

Centre on Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports. (2022). Positive behavioral interventions and supports,

Ciarrochi, J., Atkins, P., Hayes, L., Sahdra, B., & Parker, P. (2016). Contextual positive psychology: Policy recommendations for implementing positive psychology into schools. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1-16. 

Cook , C. R., Fiat, A., Larson, M., Daikos, C., Slemrod, T., Holland, Thayer, E., Renshaw, T. (2018). Positive greetings at the Door: Evaluation of a low-cost, high-yield proactive classroom management strategy. Journal of Positive Behaviour Interventions, 20(3). 

European Schoolnet. (2016). Future Classroom Lab.;jsessionid=BE6FEFB4D0F25BA5CAB5A549F593824B

Foster-Cohen, S., & Mirfin-Veitch, B. (2017). Evidence for the effectiveness of visual supports in helping children with disabilities access the mainstream primary classroom. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 17(2), 79-86. 

Gallagher, E. (2018). The effect of teacher-student relationships: social and academic outcomes of low-income middle and high school students. Applied psychology opus:

Goss, P., & Sonneman, J. (2017). Engaging students. Creating classrooms that improve learning.

Greenberg, M., & Jennings, P. (2009). The Prosocial Classroom: Teachers Social and Emotional Competence in Relation to Student and Classroom outcomes. Review of Educational Research, 491-525. 

Gremmen, M. C., van den Berg, Y. H., Segers, E., & Cillessan, A. H. (2016). Considerations for classroom seating arrangements and the role of teacher characteristics and beliefs. Social Psychology Education, 19, 749-774. DOI 10.1007/s11218-016-9353-y 

Hattie, J. (2008). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analysis relating to achievement. Oxon: Routledge. 

Kidder, J., & McDonnell, A. (2015). Visual aids for positive behaviour support of young children with autism spectrum disorder. Young Exceptional Children, 20(3), 103-116. 

Larkey, S. (2018). Here is how and why to use visuals.

Lester, L., & Cross, D. (2015). The Relationship between School Climate and Mental and Emotional Wellbeing over the Transition from Primary to Secondary School. Psychology of Well-Being, 

Linsin, M. (2012). How to Teach Routines. Retrieved from Smart Classroom Management:   

Marzano, R. J., Marzano, J. S., & Pickering, D. (2003). Classroom management that works: Research based strategies for every teacher. ASCD. 

Marzano, R., Marzano, J., & Pickering, D. (2003). Classroom management that works: Research-based strategies for every teacher. Association for supervision & curriculum development. 

McCorskey, J. C., & McVetta, R. W. (1978). Classroom seating arrangements: Instructional communication theory versus student preferences. Communication Education, 27, 99-111. 

Miller, P. (2005). Body language in the classroom. Connecting education and careers, 80(8), 28-30. 

Ministry of Education New Zealand. (2016). The impact of physical design on student outcomes. Ministry of Education. 

NSW Ombudsman. (2017). NSW Ombudsman Inquiry into behaviour management in schools.

NSW Department of Education. (2015). Six effective practices in high growth schools: Centre for Education Statistics and Evaluation.

NSW Department of Education. (2020). What works best: Evidence based practices to help improve NSW student performance. Centre for Education Statistics & Evaluation:

NSW Department of Education. (2018). Re-engaging students: A 2018 review of literature around student engagement. NSW Department of Education. 

NSW Education Standards Authority. (2018). Australian Professional Standards for Teachers. Teacher Accreditation:

Pearce, N., Cross, D., Epstein, M., Johnston, R., & Legge, E. (2019). Strengthening school and system capacity to implement effective interventions to support student behaviour and wellbeing in NSW public schools: An evidence review. Telethon Kids Institute: Perth, Western Australia.

Solomon, B. G., Klien, S. A., Hintze, J. M., Cressey, J. M., Peller, S. (2012). A meta-analysis of school-wide positive behavior support: an exploratory study using single-case synthesis. Psychology in the Schools, 49(2), 105-121.

Wong, H. Wong, R. Jondahl, S. Ferguson, O. (2014). The Classroom Management Book. Harry. K. Wong Publications  

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