Stage 4 reading - Literal comprehension

Learning intention

Students will learn to use a range of texts to locate and interpret directly stated information, including multimodal and digital texts. Students will use skimming and scanning strategies to identify key words to respond to tasks.

Syllabus outcome (2022)

  • EN4-RVL-01: uses a range of personal, creative and critical strategies to read texts that are complex in their ideas and construction
  • EN4-URA-01: analyses how meaning is created through the use of and response to language forms, features and structures

Syllabus outcome (2012)*

  • EN4-1A: responds to and composes texts for understanding, interpretation, critical analysis, imaginative expression and pleasure
  • EN4-2A: effectively uses a widening range of processes, skills, strategies and knowledge for responding to and composing texts in different media and technologies
  • EN4-3B: uses and describes language forms, features and structures of texts appropriate to a range of purposes, audiences and contexts.

*Note: Visit the Leading curriculum K-12 website for more information on the syllabus implementation timeline.

National Literacy Learning Progression

Understanding texts

  • UnT9: summarises the text identifying key details only (comprehension); identifies different interpretations of the text citing evidence from a text (comprehension); analyses texts which have more than one purpose and explain how parts of the text support a particular purpose (comprehension); selects reading/viewing strategies appropriate to reading purpose (e.g. scans text for evidence) (process)
  • UnT10: reads and views complex or some highly complex texts (see Text complexity) (comprehension); synthesises information from a variety of complex texts (comprehension); integrates automatically a range of processes such as predicting, confirming predictions, monitoring, and connecting relevant elements of the text to build meaning (process); navigates extended texts including complex digital texts (process)
  • UnT11: reads and views sophisticated texts (see Text complexity) (comprehension); identifies relevant and irrelevant information in texts (process)

NAPLAN item descriptors

The relevant NAPLAN item descriptors are included in the resource, available for download on this page.

Task outline

Full task descriptions are included in the resource, available for download on this page.

Skimming and scanning

Students learn to skim a text and identify the main idea and scan to answer specific questions.

Summarising and linking main ideas

Students use their own coding system to identify key vocabulary, main idea and supporting ideas in a text and use this information to create a summary.


Students annotate texts using a text analysis guide.

Locating directly stated information

Students devise a set of literal comprehension questions using question stems for a range of fiction and non-fiction texts.

Interpreting directly stated information

Students skim, scan and use graphic organisers to support their interpretation and understanding of directly stated information.

Restating information located in texts

Students locate and organise synonyms and textual evidence to answer key questions.


  • Teaching and learning

Business Unit:

  • Educational Standards
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