Stage 4 reading - Inference

Learning focus

Students learn to use background information, predictions, clues in the text and understanding of character to infer in both written and visual texts.

Syllabus outcome

  • EN4-1A: responds to and composes texts for understanding, interpretation, critical analysis, imaginative expression and pleasure
  • EN4-2A: effectively uses a widening range of processes, skills, strategies and knowledge for responding to and composing texts in different media and technologies

National Literacy Learning Progression

Understanding texts

  • UnT9: justifies an opinion or response by citing evidence from a text (comprehension); uses processes such as predicting, confirming prediction, monitoring and connecting relevant elements of the text to build or repair meaning (process); selects reading/viewing pathways appropriate to reading purpose (scans text for key phrase or close reading for learning) (process)
  • UnT10: synthesises information from a variety of complex texts; analyses the author’s perspectives in moderately complex or some sophisticated texts; selects and cites the most appropriate evidence from a text to support an argument or opinion
  • UnT11: derives a generalisation from abstract ideas in texts; integrates existing understanding with new concepts in texts

NAPLAN item descriptors

The relevant NAPLAN item descriptors are included in the resource, available for download on this page.

Task outline

Full task descriptions are included in the resource, available for download on this page.

Task 1: Ignition task for inference

Students use their background knowledge to make inferences (one activity).

Task 2: What is inference?

Students use clues and background knowledge to learn about inference (six activities).

Task 3: What’s going on in this picture?

Students infer what is happening using their background knowledge and clues in images and short films (three activities).

Task 4: Using texts to infer

Students investigate the kinds of evidence in texts that inferences can be made from and the process used to draw logical conclusions regarding 'hidden' meaning or themes (five activities).

Task 5: Answering inference questions

Students learn how to answer inferential questions in a sample text (one activity).

Task 6: Temporal and causal relationships

Students look at texts to identify words that show cause and effect and the order of events. Students learn methods to work out how the ideas in the text are unified and how to infer causal relationships when causal words are not evident (four activities).

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