The lesson as episodes

It is useful to structure the lesson as a series of episodes.

There are several lesson structures available to assist the design of lessons, including the following:

Lesson introduction

The introduction opens the lesson and is ideally approximately 15% of the lesson time.

In the lesson opening, the learning is put into context. Students develop an understanding of why the learning is important and how they will know if they are successful. The lesson introduction provides a hook to get students thinking about the learning to come. Key components are:

  • a ‘hook’ to set the scene for what is to come
  • a review of any previous material taught which the new lesson might build upon
  • a clearly stated learning intention/goal, the lesson purpose, and the success criteria
  • a lesson outline.

Main body of teaching and learning

The main teaching and learning time should be approximately 75% of the lesson time.

The strategies are modelled, guided and independent teaching. These 3 well-researched strategies can be used to introduce new knowledge and assist students to practise, consolidate, transfer and apply their learning.

  • introduce new learning
  • provide direct, teacher-led and obvious scaffolding
  • demonstrate/exemplify processes or products
  • check for understanding and provide more modelled teaching as required.

  • students and teachers assume equal responsibility for their learning
  • students practise and apply new learning with ‘just enough’ teacher support to be successful
  • students practise new learning collaboratively
  • monitor student performance and provide feedback
  • check for understanding and provide more modelled and guided teaching as required.

  • students assume a greater degree of responsibility for their learning
  • students require minimal support to be successful
  • students demonstrate their new learning
  • students transfer and apply the learning to other contexts.

Lesson closure

The closing of the lesson should take approximately 10% of lesson time. At the end of each lesson, allow time for students to reflect on the lesson and their learning. The key components are:

  • summary of the purpose of the lesson
  • review of key ideas/ skills/ lesson tasks and how they supported the learning intention/goal
  • students articulate in some way what they have learnt in the lesson
  • teacher and students assess what learning has taken place, and how effectively.


  • NSW Department of Education and Training. (2009) - An introduction to quality literacy teaching.
Return to top of page Back to top