Classroom management: Creating and maintaining positive learning environments
This literature review was originally published 09 January 2020.
The literature review defines classroom management and provides a brief overview of classroom management research. It also describes the characteristics of effective classroom management strategies and how schools can best support teachers when implementing them.
Classroom management refers to the strategies teachers use to support and facilitate learning in the classroom. Effective classroom management is important for student achievement because it creates an environment that minimises disruptions, maximises instruction time, and encourages students to engage in learning.
The evidence suggests that classroom management requires both preventative and responsive strategies, with an emphasis on preventative strategies.
Preventative strategies are proactive and encourage students to be on-task, motivated to learn, and prosocial. Effective preventative strategies include:
- creating and maintaining a positive classroom climate
- using structured instruction to engage students in learning
- explicitly teaching students rules and routines
- offering pre-corrections to remind students of expectations
- using active supervision in the classroom.
Responsive strategies include corrective responses to inappropriate behaviours. They support students to re-engage in learning. Effective corrective practices:
- identify why the student is disengaged or being disruptive
- ensure the student understands the corrective response
- are consistent and expected
- are given calmly
- are proportionate to the level of behaviour displayed.