Punctuation is used to support meaning and smooth reading of texts.

Stage 4 punctuation includes the following topics:

  • Semicolon
    A semicolon (;) is a sophisticated punctuation device, which makes writing more succinct. They are used to draw two or more ideas on a similar topic together. Semicolons tell the reader to take just a short pause when reading, as the two ideas are linked.
  • Colon
    The colon (:) is a sophisticated punctuation device, which is used to introduce information. Most commonly colons are used before a list or further explanation.
  • Dashes
    The dash (—) is used to show an interruption or additional information in a sentence. It is interchangeable with commas and parentheses with a slightly different purpose. The dash generally has a stronger emphasis than the comma and is less formal than parentheses.
  • Hyphens
    The Hyphen (-) is used to connect words or parts of words together to make a new word. In some cases the hyphen is no longer used between words and they are directly joined. For example, co-operation can be written cooperation. With the blurred rules on when to use a hyphen, writers are encouraged to consider if using the hyphen helps to avoid confusion.
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