Identifying and using a range of conjunctions and connectives

Cohesion in texts includes the use of connectives and conjunctions and more sophisticated texts effectively use a variety of referring words, substitutions, word associations and text connectives to improve the flow of the writing. It refers to the use of linguistic devices to join sentences together, including conjunctions, reference words, substitution and lexical devices such as repetition of words (or synonyms), collocations and lexical groups.

Students need to connect ideas in logical ways in order to display and build precise factual knowledge, develop their ideas to persuade more convincingly and express more complex relationships in their speech and writing.

Activities to support the strategy

Activity 1: conjunction bingo

Conjunction bingo gives students practice reading and saying conjunctions. In small groups, each student is given a laminated bingo card with nine conjunctions on it. To mark that space students must give a sentence with that conjunction in it. The game leader for each group pulls conjunctions out of a bag, one at a time. The first student to have all nine sentences complete calls out 'Bingo'.

Activity 2: build a story

Explain to students that, when a sentence gives a reason for an event or action, a causal conjunction such as because is used. When a sentence explains the result of an action or an event, a conjunction such as so, therefore, as a result or consequently is used.

Ask students to contribute a sentence one idea at a time. The story may start out “I was late to school” and the next student adds the conjunction “so,” the third student might add the phrase “I ran as fast as I could.” Continue adding to the story one phrase at a time with students adding conjunctions between the phrases to join them.

Activity 3: conjunction match up

Using the following conjunctions, introduce one type at a time. Students then sort them into the correct type.

Ask students to work together to sort into correct categories, and then discuss the answers as a group. Students write examples of these conjunctions in sentences and add these to the display created or the resource to continue match ups.

Activity 4: conjunction work sheets

  1. conjunction work sheet (PDF 61.41 KB)
  2. conjunction sentences (PDF 197.31 KB) (thanks S. Lee 2008)

Activity 5: IWB activities

Go to the following website

Activity 6: apps


  • Stage: 1-3
  • Cost: free
  • iPad/iPhone: yes
  • Android: yes
  • Developer website
  • Developer description:
  • Grammaropolis is where grammar lives! Hailed as a Schoolhouse Rock for the 21st Century, Grammaropolis uses the parts of speech as animated characters whose personalities are based on the roles they play in the sentence. From the shady pronoun always trying to take the noun’s place to the motherly conjunction who just wants everyone to get along, Grammaropolis achieves the seemingly impossible: we make learning grammar fun!

    Every part of speech has its own neighbourhood that includes a curriculum map with songs, books, videos, and quizzes. Follow the map to earn your badge! The Complete Edition comes with the following neighbourhoods:

    Our innovative, classroom-proven approach blends character-based content with traditional quiz-based assessment and is designed to address students' varied learning styles. Because the parts of speech are personified based on their roles in the sentence, the characterization provides students with a more effective way to visualize and internalize the roles of the parts of speech and to identify how a sentence is put together.

    Grammaropolis was created and refined in the ultimate proving grounds: the classroom.

Mad Libs

  • Cost: free
  • iPad/iPhone: yes
  • Android: yes
  • Developer website
  • Developer description:
  • The world’s greatest word game is back with an all-new look! Fill in the blanks and be the funniest person in the room!

    * 21 free Mad Libs stories with new free content added all the time
    * New swipe gestures make creating stories faster and easier
    * Interactive hints provide inspiration and speed your play along
    * Save your stories and share with friends
    * Earn stickers and badges every time you play
    * Brand-new Game Center rewards
    * Replay stories as many times as you want
    * Play solo or with friends and family
    * Bright, engaging color palette and all-new typography
    * Custom illustrations for every book
    * Explore optional in-app purchases for loads more stories
    * Kid-friendly interface
    * No 3rd party advertising

    Bright, fun, and more engaging—it’s an even cooler Mad Libs app experience.

    For the very first time, an original soundtrack and audio effects.

    This game makes you seriously smart—you’ll learn how to make great, fun, smart word choices!


Australian curriculum

ACELA1522: Text structure and organisation: Investigate how complex sentences can be used in a variety of ways to elaborate, extend and explain ideas.

NSW syllabus

EN3-6B: Outcome 6: uses knowledge of sentence structure, grammar, punctuation and vocabulary to respond to and compose clear and cohesive texts in different media and technologies  (EN3-6B) - Understand and apply knowledge of language forms and features: identify a variety of connectives in texts to indicate time, add information, clarify understanding, show cause and effect and indicate condition/concession

NSW literacy continuum

WRIC12M6: Aspects of writing, Cluster 12, Marker 6: Makes sentence level choices (e.g. short sentences to build tension; complex sentences to add detail) using a variety of sentence beginnings and dependent clauses.

Return to top of page