This strategy is useful at all stages of literacy learning.
It is important for students to talk out the meaning of written texts because spoken language and written language are different in their structure (grammar and syntax) and the words used (vocabulary and semantics). By thinking aloud about the meaning of texts students get the opportunity to express the written text meanings in every day spoken language which is easier for them to understand.
Teachers should model how to do ‘think aloud’ about the meaning of texts while reading, for example, 'I wonder why/how/where …' Follow this wondering with statements such as 'It could be … because … What do you think?' This opens up the discussion for students to take risks and suggest their own ideas. Encourage students to justify their ideas by asking, “What part of the text make you think that?”
The following strategies should be used to support students to complete tasks that have meaningful purposes rather than as stand-alone activities.
- Understanding similar meanings in different words and note different meanings in the same word (for example ‘deadly’ has a different meaning in Aboriginal English and standard Australian English)
- Creating a picture from text to make meaning
- Transposing what is seen in visual literacy and multimodal texts into words
Developing students’ range in oral language can assist their reading comprehension skills and their ability to code switch between dialects such as Aboriginal English and standard Australian English. Oral language development is best encouraged through the following sequence of strategies:
- kinaesthetic – act out meanings physically or with puppets
- visual – have activities to talk about meanings in pictures
- auditory – listening comprehension activities
- print-based – reading and writing activities.
As you talk about words, create word walls and where possible include a picture representing the word.
Activity 1: creating a picture from text
- Draw a character or scene: Teacher reads a descriptive passage from a text such as The Iron Man twice. The first time students just listen and imagine the image. The second reading students have a blank piece of paper in front of them and create the image depicted in the passage. Compare with a peer and see if the image is similar. Discuss as a class the features that were prominent in all drawings and why?
- Barrier game: students sitting back to back are given an image (use a contextually appropriate Aboriginal or Indigenous image, for example bush tucker, artworks, famous people) and then the student with the picture uses descriptive language to describe it to their buddy who can recreate by drawing or, if appropriate, building it with Lego blocks.
Activity 2: transpose visual and multimodal texts into words
- Watch a Dust Echoes video or Tiddalik the frog and discuss the meaning and creator’s intentions in the Dreaming Story.
- Create an artwork out of paint or other materials to represent the story of Tiddalik and then create a sentence underneath the artwork representing the main idea in the story or picture.
Activity 3: 8 ways of learning for Aboriginal students
Consider how you can include any of the following 8 Ways of Learning for Aboriginal students in your teaching.
- Story sharing: approaching learning through narrative.
- Learning maps: explicitly mapping/ visualising processes.
- Non-verbal: applying intrapersonal and kinaesthetic skills to thinking and learning.
- Symbols and images: using images and metaphors to understand concepts and content.
- Land links: place-based learning, linking content to local land and place.
- Non-linear: producing innovations and understanding by thinking laterally or combining systems.
- Deconstruct/reconstruct: modelling and scaffolding, working from wholes to parts (watch then do).
- Community links: centring local viewpoints, applying learning for community benefit.
These 8 ways can be considered more simply as:
- tell a story
- make a plan
- think and do
- draw it
- take it outside
- try a new way
- watch first, then do
- share it with others.
Australian curriculum – ACELA1431: Text structure and organisation: Understand that some language in written texts is unlike everyday spoken language.
NSW syllabus – Ene-7B: Understand that some language in written texts is unlike everyday spoken language.
NSW literacy continuum – Vocabulary knowledge, Cluster 3, Marker 1: Begins to expand the vocabulary used to describe everyday events and experiences.