Referring words set up links by referring to sentences or the context that has just been mentioned to maintain continuity and avoid repetition.
Pronouns are not generally used continually, even if there is a clear line of reference to the noun or name, as strings of pronouns can make a text flat and uninteresting.
Referring words – noun-pronoun chains
Referring words set up links by referring to sentences or the context that has just been mentioned to maintain continuity and avoid repetition. Other referring words include:
- noun-pronoun chains.
- demonstrative pronouns: this, that, these, those, there, (is/are).
- interrogative pronouns: who, which, what, whose, whom.
Pronouns are not generally used continually, even if there is a clear line of reference to the noun or name, as strings of pronouns can make a text flat and uninteresting. To maintain interest, good writers use different ways of identifying nouns.
Activity 1: pronoun bingo
Using the bingo cards found at the following website (for early year one students run off on A3 and only use two rows and discard the middle one with the space).
Students either call the single word or the sentences found at Pronoun bingo (see resource) to mark off the correct word www.bingocardcreator.com/pdf/pronouns.pdf.
Variation: students must use the word in turn in a sentence before they can colour in or cover the square.
- View and print pronoun bingo (PDF 25.5KB)
Activity 2: pronoun ice-creams
Children either cut out or draw pictures of nouns onto the ice cream.
Teacher puts the pronouns on the cones. Students match the cones and ice creams and share sentences using both the noun and the pronoun.
- View and print pronoun ice-creams (PDF 303.93KB)
Activity 3: clip art pronoun starters
Using the coloured pictures available at the following web site children compete to make up (written or oral) – the best sentences using a variety of pronouns www.mycutegraphics.com/graphics/technology-kids.
Activity 4: learning federation newspaper report
Using the point of view newspaper report at Scootle look at the activities – particularly the pronoun referencing one. You will need to login via your jurisdiction or with your username/password and search for L935.
Australian curriculum – ACELA1491: Understand how texts are made cohesive through the use of linking devices including pronoun reference and text connectives
NSW syllabus – EN2-9B: Uses effective and accurate sentence structure, grammatical features, punctuation conventions and vocabulary relevant to the type of text when respond
NSW literacy continuum – WRIC10M8: Aspects of writing, Cluster 10, Marker 8: Uses grammatical features such as pronouns, conjunctions and connectives to accurately link ideas and information.