Speech Pathology Australia state that up to 17% of four year old Australian children have language and early literacy difficulties. Researchers say that around 13% of high school students have communication difficulties. It is important that these students are supported so their difficulties don’t prevent them from learning and participating fully at school. This support may need to be ongoing.
Speech Pathology Australia and the NSW Department of Education recognise the importance of schools, families, and speech pathologists working collaboratively to support the speech, language and communication skills of students. We developed this information to assist school staff, parents, teachers, students and speech pathologists tackle the challenge of speech, language and communications difficulties.
What you need to know about speech, language and communication
Understanding the following information will help you work with speech pathologists.
What is a speech pathologist?
A speech pathologist is a university trained allied health professionals who work with children and adults who have speech, language and communication problems and/or difficulties swallowing.
What do speech pathologists do?
Speech pathologists help people of all ages with communication disorders and swallowing difficulties. They also undertake diagnosis and research:
- communication disorders can include difficulties with:
- understanding language
- social skills
- swallowing difficulties can include difficulties with
- positioning for feeding, eating and drinking
- swallowing food
- drinking safely.
What are speech, language and communication?
- saying the sounds in words so that people can understand what is being said
- putting ideas into words and sentences (expressive language)
- understanding what people say or write (receptive language)
- how we use language to interact with others
As well as using spoken words, language and communication also includes the use of written words, pictures, symbols, gestures, signing, objects, computers and electronic devices.
Terms to describe speech, language and communication difficulties
- speech sound disorder: difficulty in the development of a person’s speech so they have trouble saying sounds clearly. It can include articulation disorder, phonological disorder and childhood apraxia of speech. It may also be called speech difficulties, speech delay or speech impairment.
- stuttering (fluency disorder): when the flow of speech is stopped or interrupted.
- voice disorder or voice problem: when the vocal cords in the voice box are not working well. It results in a voice sounding very different to other people of the same age or sex. It can include sounding hoarse, husky, soft or strained.
- Developmental Language Disorder (DLD): when children have ongoing difficulties understanding or using spoken language and there is no clear reason for these difficulties. In the past DLD was called Specific Language Impairment (SLI).
- Language Disorder associated with...: difficulties understanding or using spoken language together with other disabilities such as cerebral palsy, autistic spectrum disorder or hearing loss.
- language delay: when a baby, infant or child may be slow in reaching the expected stages for talking and listening. At this stage it is unknown if the difficulties will be ongoing.
- social communication disorder: difficulties with the rules of spoken language that help people connect. This includes trouble following the rules of conversation, such as taking turns and staying on topic. In the past it may have been called pragmatic language disorder or semantic pragmatic disorder.
Why speech, language and communication skills are so important
Speech, language and communication skills are:
- building blocks for the basic skills of literacy and numeracy
- necessary for students to understand class content, express ideas and work together with others at school
- closely linked to behaviour, social skills and building friendships. We use communication to convey how we are feeling and to ask for help when we need it.
Stronger together – family, school and speech pathologist
When providing support for people with speech, language and communication difficulties, there should be a strong connection between what happens at home and what happens at school. This linking of home and school helps students develop skills and supports their learning.
When two or more people are working together towards a shared goal, it’s called collaboration or collaborative practice. Collaboration is essential for student learning. The student, family, speech pathologist and school will see the best results when everyone involved is working collaboratively.
A whole school approach to supporting students with speech, language and communication needs encourages collaboration. An effective whole school approach involves all members of the school community and includes specific programs, approaches and policies that connect with all aspects of school life and are supported by everyday practices.
Ways of working together – family, school and speech pathologist
There are different ways that students, families, schools and speech pathologists can work together. A speech pathologist may work directly with one student, with a small group or with the whole class or even the whole school.
The way a speech pathologist works with a particular student can change over time, depending on the student’s age and needs, as well as the needs of the school and family. When a child is starting school, it’s important for parents and carers to let the school know about the student’s past experiences with speech pathology.
The best outcomes are achieved when everyone involved with supporting the student’s speech, language and communication works together as a team.
What I need to know to work together with others
Parents and carers – the first teachers in a child’s life
As a parent or carer you have a vital role to play in the development of your child's speech, language and communication skills. Strong speech, language and communication skills are important for home and for school. Speech, language and communication are the building blocks for learning to read, write and count. Students need language skills to monitor their own feelings, communicate effectively with others and build peer friendships.
Helping your child with their speech, language and communication skills is most effectively done as part of a team. It is essential that parents and carers are part of this team. You will see stronger results for your child when you, the school and the speech pathologist work together as a team.
Working as part of a collaborative team may be a new experience for many people. Below are some useful points about what you can do, share and learn as part of a collaborative team.
Working together – getting started
- Discuss your child's speech, language and communication needs with the teacher or principal before the child first starts school or changes schools.
- Establish a strong connection with everyone involved in supporting your child so you can work collaboratively.
- If your child is seeing a speech pathologist, talk to them about how they can collaborate with you and with the school.
- To avoid confusion and misunderstandings everyone involved with supporting a student’s speech, language and communication skills will need to agree on key terms and what they mean.
Good teamwork – next steps
- Ensure you understand key terms and always speak up and ask questions if things are unclear.
- Be an active participant and listener.
- Recognise your strengths and the strengths of others.
- Be available and make time to attend meetings.
- Trust the other members of the team.
- Respect all contributions.
- Communicate your feelings and ideas, ask for help if you aren't confident communicating.
- Ask for an interpreter if needed.
- Contribute to goals for your child.
- Work with your child to support goals at home.
- Ask your child about school.
- What’s easy?
- What‘s difficult?
Information to share
- Your child's past experiences, interests and needs.
- Your present and future goals for your child.
- Goals from a NDIS plan, if applicable.
- Other support or therapy your child may be receiving.
- What works best for your child when they are learning new things.
- How your child uses things they’ve learnt in the classroom when they are at home.
- Information about your child's behaviour and behaviour change.
- Your concerns about your child's progress.
- Things, people, events that may influence your child's behaviour and learning at school.
- Past reports, including assessments from specialists and allied health clinicians.
Information to learn
- Strategies for home.
- Services and resources available at school and in the community.
- New terms and ways to work with others focussing on building your child's skills.
- Your child's strengths and weaknesses in the classroom.
- Ways to support your child to transition between classes, school years and schools.
Examples of collaboration between family, student, speech pathologist and school
Supporting all students
- Speech pathologist works with the school community to support a whole school approach to supporting all students’ speech, language and communication.
- Speech pathologist and teacher work together in the classroom and with families to support all students’ speech, language and communication skills.
Supporting individual students
- Family, speech pathologist and teacher share observations, concerns and strategies to help with planning and making goals.
- Speech pathology and educational goals are shared so that they can be reinforced in the classroom, during therapy and at home.
- Family, speech pathologist and school meet regularly to discuss the student’s goals, support and progress.
- Class content and programs are shared with the speech pathologist and family. Speech pathology resources and programs are shared with the school and family. This will provide a chance for pre-teaching of vocabulary, concepts and language structures by the speech pathologist. It will help link what happens in speech pathology sessions and at home back into the classroom and vice versa.
- The speech pathologist could observe the classroom context and give feedback and discuss strategies with the teacher and family.
- The speech pathologist, teacher and family discuss any support and adjustments that may be needed in the classroom.
- The speech pathologist provides a written report to the learning and support team, or if possible, attend a learning and support team meeting in person, by phone or online.
How and when speech, language and communication skills usually develop
The stages below are based on typical development. However, it is important to remember that children often develop skills at different rates.
Some students with significant difficulties or disabilities may not achieve all the developmental stages or may progress through these stages more slowly than their peers.
It is important to recognise that all students can learn and extend their communication skills.
If you are concerned that a child is not developing skills at the ages outlined in this section, see, How parents can help a child’s speech, language and communication skills and Where to get advice and discuss concerns.
Speech, language and communication stages
What is typical 12 months to 5 years of age?
Babies start learning as soon as they are born. A child’s first five years are critical to speech, language and communication development but speech, language and communication skills continue to develop after this time. The following information will give you an idea of what is expected at certain ages. The age ranges are general and there is some overlap. If you are concerned as a parent, please contact your doctor, your child’s teacher or a speech pathologist. You can find a speech pathologist on the Speech Pathology Australia website.
For more information and resources, see the Speech Pathology Australia Communication Milestones Kit and Speech Pathology Australia factsheets. Translated and easy English factsheets are also available.
First words project (U.S.A) website with social communication growth charts.
The average age children learn to pronounce English consonants correctly.
Australian parenting website Raising children and the NSW Health website have more information about developmental stages, strategies to support children’s development and behaviour and resources on child development. The Child Personal Health Record or Blue Book also has valuable information about a child’s health and development. It is available in many languages.
What is typical by 5 years of age?
The child can:
- follow 2-3 step instruction such as 'Get the bread and put it on the table next to the cheese'
- sit and listen in a group to a story or instructions
- understand words such as ‘first’, ‘last’, ‘might’, ‘above’ and ‘in between’
- understand words that describe time and order such as “first we are going to the shop, next we will play in the park”
- show an interest in the meanings of words, such as giving the meaning of simple words or asking what a new word means
- use sentences that are easy to understand. However, they may still have some difficulties with grammar. For example, saying 'sheeps' instead of 'sheep' or 'goed' instead of 'went'
- start conversations and take turns in longer conversations
- can retell a simple story or event
- use language for different purposes such as asking questions or making requests
- use most sounds correctly when talking, although they may have some difficulties with harder words such as 'scribble' or 'elephant'.
What is typical by 6 years?
The child can:
- follow longer 3-4 step instruction such as 'Get the big red book and put it on the bottom shelf next to the plant'
- share and discuss more complex ideas such as 'why should we have healthy food in the canteen?'
- remember stories and spoken information
- understand that the same word can mean two things, such as 'orange' the fruit and 'orange' the colour
- understand that different words can mean the same thing such as ’minus’ and ‘take away’
- use descriptive words like 'carefully', 'slowly' or 'clever'
- understand that words contain sounds
- match sounds to letters (for example the letter ‘a’ says the sound ‘a’ as in apple).
What is typical by 7-9 years?
The child can:
- understand complex instructions such as “Before you take the dog for a walk, get the dish, the one on the left side of the shelf.”
- understand words which compare two items such as “Dad is taller than mum, but mum is taller than me.”
- predict and draws conclusions, for example “Joe is carrying a wet towel and goggles, so maybe he went swimming.”
- use and understand more complex sentences such as “the dog is chased by the cat”
- keeps a conversation going by staying on topic, giving reasons and explaining choices
- give an oral presentation and listen to a presentation
- ask and answer ‘wh’ questions (what, where, who, why, when)
- use speech that is understood by everyone and can say most long words correctly (for example helicopter).
What is typical by 9-11 years?
The child can:
- understand other points of view, can agree or disagree and can think of arguments for and against, such as we should use public transport.
- give a summary of information they have heard
- use and understand descriptive language such as, “the coach roared like a tiger”
- talk about words, makes jokes and does wordplay for example, “This is my right hand, this is my wrong hand”
- participate in group discussions.
What is typical by 11-14 years?
The young adolescent:
- has a range of friends and begins to socialise on their own
- can use language to discuss feelings
- uses longer sentences, usually 7-12 words or more
- understands and uses words used in different subjects such as science (mammal, atom, examine, theory)
- knows how to use humour and sarcasm and know when others are being sarcastic or funny
- can change topic in conversations at the right time
- shows some understanding of idioms, such as “pull your socks up!"
What is typical by 14-17 years?
The older adolescent:
- follows complicated instructions such as 'Bring in the shopping from the car, after you put away the frozen food, put out the washing and then put away the rest of the groceries.'
- knows when they haven’t understood and asks to be told again
- tells long and very complicated stories where there are plot twists and numerous characters
Spotting the signs: Should I be concerned?
Even though children may develop differently, there are skills that are expected by certain ages.
The information below will help you to understand more about what skills are expected for your child. If you’re concerned that your child does not have these skills, see Where to get advice and discuss concerns.
By 12 months of age
Children should be able to:
- use sounds, gestures or words
- copy simple actions like clapping
- look at people who are talking
- respond to their name.
By 2 years of age
Children should be able to:
- follow simple instructions (where's your nose, give me the ball)
- point to simple body parts, pictures, objects when named
- put two words together e.g. more milk
- play with toys, for example, feed teddy, toy car play.
By 3 years of age
Children should be able to:
- put three or more words together, for example, big dog eating
- have little conversations with people
- ask questions using who, what, where
- follow two-part instructions such as 'give dolly a drink and put her in bed'.
Your child’s speech should be clear to family members more than half the time.
Between 4-5 years of age
Children should be able to:
- take part in conversations with other people about a range of topics
- look at people when they speak
- use long sentences (more than 4 words)
- follow simple instructions
- understand the words ‘in, on, under’.
Your child’s speech should be clear to people unfamiliar with the child most of the time
Between 5-11 years of age
When children start school, they suddenly need to use language differently to the way they use it at home. They need to listen to instructions given to a whole group, stand up in front of others and speak, learn about new topics and understand new words. Getting used to a new routine and learning how to interact with a variety of adults and children will be important. As children progress, the language demands of the classroom change and the child will need to learn new skills. Children with speech, language and communication needs may suddenly have new difficulties when moving from one stage of learning to another. The skills below will vary depending what stage the child is in. A child in stage one may be expected to tell a simple story whereas a child in stage 3 would be expected to give more details and use more complicated words. The NSW English syllabus contains more information about what students are expected to do at each stage of learning.
Children should be able to do all of these (as appropriate for their stage of learning):
- tell or retell a story or event that ‘makes sense’
- understand what they read or listen to
- follow or remember spoken instructions
- take turns in conversations.
Between 11-17 years of age
Language development is something that we think about during the early years of school. However, language and communication skills continue to develop throughout adolescence.
For some adolescents, communication problems may only become obvious in secondary school, due to increasing social and academic demands. With these students, language difficulties that were resolved during primary school, can reappear as literacy, learning or behavioural difficulties later on. Because speech, language and communication needs aren’t visible, they can be mistaken for something else such as learning difficulties or poor behaviour.
Below are some indicators that an adolescent may be having speech, language and communication difficulties.
- suddenly start having problems understanding what they need to do in class or for homework
- have difficulties coping with set reading and completing work
- have difficulties writing down their ideas in a clear, organised way
- find it hard to start new friendships and be unsure what to say or how to interact with new friends
- be sad or anxious
- report bullying or teasing
- have behaviour difficulties at school
- refuse to go to school.
Speech, language and communication difficulties can look like disobedience, boredom, laziness or lack of attention, particularly in high school.
In this video Jake and his family talk about how his behaviour changed in Year 1 due to his language difficulties.
This is a video of a high school student, parent and speech pathologist discussing what it is like to have language difficulties in high school.
What teachers might say
Students need to use different speech, language and communication skills at school than they use at home. Difficulties or skills seen at home may not be seen at school and vice versa. It’s important for the family and school to talk about what they see at home and school. It’s also important for parents to discuss with the teacher about their child’s strengths and weaknesses. By working together, the family, teacher and speech pathologist can identify how best to support the student.
The teacher might mention a student has difficulty with:
- understanding, starting and completing set work after a verbal instructions is provided, for example, instructions may need to be repeated several times, instructions are ignored or misunderstood
- taking part in activities where they have to talk
- explaining things
- making and keeping friends
- organisation, managing time and belongings.
Where to get advice and discuss concerns
Seek help early if you are concerned.
In this video parents talk about the benefits of getting support for their child with speech, language and communication needs.
- Talk to your child’s teacher. To help you to describe what’s worrying you
- look at Speech, language and communication stages
- look at Spotting the signs: Should I be concerned?
- note down what your child is doing well and where they seem to have difficulties
- write down or record on your phone some of the words your child says, sentences they use or instructions they don’t understand. This will be useful to give to teachers and other people working with your child.
- The Speech Pathology Australia website has information about finding a speech pathologist in your area.
- Contact your local community health service or hospital. These are free services.
- See your local doctor.
In this video Parents talk about the importance of getting help for their child and themselves
How parents can help a child’s speech, language and communication skills
In this video parents talk about what strategies they use to help their children with speech, language and communication needs.
Play and conversations are important ways for a child or adolescent to develop their speech, language and communication skills.
Things you can do to help:
- talk to a child about their interests or what they are doing at the time
- allow plenty of time for a child to respond after a comment or question
- expand on what a child has said to help build longer, more complex sentences. For example, if they say “We are going shopping” you could say “Yes, we're going shopping because we need more bread”
- comment on what a child is doing e.g. “You are pushing the car fast"
- if a child can’t think of what to say, give the words they need to use e.g. when they want to join in a game, say, 'Ben, you could say ‘Can I join in?’
- demonstrate how to say a word or sentence instead of telling them that what they’ve said is wrong. For example, if they say “I roded my bike really fast” you can continue the conversation by adding “Great, you rode your bike fast, how fast did you go?”
- use a variety of words in your conversation e.g. Instead of saying "you look tired", you could say “You look exhausted, how was soccer?”
- give a child lots of praise for talking, using new words, asking questions and joining conversations
- don't ask too many closed questions that can only be answered with only yes or no
- if a child suddenly changes topic, redirect them. "Let's finish talking about soccer before we talk about school".
Things you can do to help a child follow instructions and conversations:
- speak a little more slowly
- use shorter sentences
- break instructions into separate steps such as ‘after you finish breakfast, (pause), go and get your shoes, (pause), then go to the front door’
- give more time to respond
- use gestures, pictures, photos or other visual images as well as words
- check for understanding by asking a child to repeat what they have to do
- minimise the use of slang sayings and idioms (pull your socks up, it’s a piece of cake, sitting on the fence)
- explain new words by linking the word to an easier word such as "A beverage is a drink, I like to drink beverages, my favourite beverage is water, what beverages do you like?"
- use a new word often in a variety of situations
- try and explain a new word with simple words and by giving examples and non-examples such as "nutritious: food that is good for you and helps you grow, fruit is nutritious, lollies are not".
When you speak another language other than English
When a child is learning English as an additional language (because their first language is not English) it can be harder to tell if the child has speech, language and communication difficulties. Children may have speech, language and communication difficulties in their home language before they start to learn English as an additional language. It is important to get help early if there are concerns. Here are some important points:
- home language is the language spoken most of the time by family members for everyday activities and interactions at home
- many children speak more than one language without difficulty
- some children will have speech, language and communication needs in their home language
- learning English as an additional language is not a reason to ignore concerns about the child’s speech, language and communication needs
- learning English as an additional language is not a reason to be more concerned about the child’s speech, language and communication needs
- it can be difficult for families and other professionals to know if a child has speech, language and communication needs, always see a speech pathologist if you are concerned.
It is always important for parents to use the language they are most comfortable with at home when talking to their child. Strong skills in a child’s home language help a child learn a second language.
This video explains why it is very important to speak to a child in their home language
What you might see when a child is learning English as an additional language
It is common for children who are learning English as an additional language to show some or all of the following. It may be difficult to separate these behaviours from those seen when a child has speech, language and communication needs:
- Silent period: Children are often very quiet, speaking little as they focus on understanding the new language.
- Interference and transfer: A child may make an English error due to the direct influence of their home language. When learning to talk the child may mix grammar rules or their sentence may contain words from each language.
- Code switching: A child or adult may suddenly change the language they are speaking to use words or sentences from the other language.
- Language loss: As the child learns English, they may lose skills and fluency in their home language.
Most children can learn two or more languages at the same time without difficulty. If you are worried, look at Speech, language and communication stages, Spotting the signs: Should I be concerned? and compare the child's skills in their home language to what is written. If you are still concerned talk to other people supporting the child and see Where to get advice and discuss concerns.
If a child does have speech, language and communication needs and uses more than one language, it is important for the family, speech pathologist and child’s teacher to talk about the best ways to support the child.
Other ideas to help you can be found in the Raising Bilingual Children factsheet.