Stage 3 Speaking and listening

Outcomes

Relevant NSW K-10 English syllabus speaking and listening outcomes and content points have been identified. Not all outcomes and content points are listed here as students work towards achieving the outcomes over a two year period.

  • Listening activities encourage students to demonstrate active listening skills so that they may gather specific information and ideas.
  • Speaking opportunities allow students to express well-developed and well-organised ideas and respond constructively to opinions which may not be the same as their own. Students consider language choices to entertain, inform and persuade audiences for a range of purposes. They collaborate with others to deliver effective presentations.
  • Interacting opportunities allow students to collaborate with others, to share and evaluate ideas and opinions and to develop and appreciate different points of view. Students can communicate effectively, making language choices to suit various contexts.

EN3-1A – communicates effectively for a variety of audiences and purposes using increasingly challenging topics, ideas, issues and language forms and features

  • plan, rehearse and deliver presentations, selecting and sequencing appropriate content and multimodal elements for defined audiences and purposes, making appropriate choices for modality and emphasis
  • use interaction skills, varying conventions of spoken interactions such as voice volume, tone, pitch and pace, according to group size, formality of interaction and needs and expertise of the audience
  • participate in and contribute to discussions, clarifying and interrogating ideas, developing and supporting arguments, sharing and evaluating information, experiences and opinions

EN3-5B – discusses how language is used to achieve a widening range of purposes for a widening range of audiences and contexts

  • identify and use a variety of strategies to present information and opinions across a range of texts

EN3-7C – thinks imaginatively, creatively, interpretively and critically about information and ideas and identifies connections between texts when responding to and composing texts

  • explain own preferences for a particular interpretation of a text, referring to text details and own knowledge and experience
  • think critically about aspects of texts such as ideas and events
  • think imaginatively when engaging with texts, using prediction, for example, to imagine what happens to characters after the text
  • experiment with others' imaginative texts by changing aspects such as place, characters, rhythm, mood, sound effects and dialogue

EN3-8D – identifies and considers how different viewpoints of their world, including aspects of culture, are represented in texts

  • consider how texts about local events and issues in the media are presented to engage the reader or viewer
  • make connections between students' own experiences and those of characters and events represented in texts drawn from different historical, social and cultural contexts
  • explore, discuss and appreciate connections between Dreaming stories and contemporary Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander life

EN3-9E – recognises, reflects on and assesses their strengths as a learner

  • recognise that there is a language for discussing learning experiences
  • discuss how the reader or viewer can enjoy and discover a wide range of literary experiences through texts
  • discuss and reflect on the roles and responsibilities when working as a member of a group and evaluate the benefits of working collaboratively with peers to achieve a goal
  • describe how skills in speaking, listening, reading/viewing and writing/representing contribute to language development

English K-10 Syllabus © NSW Education Standards Authority (NESA) for and on behalf of the Crown in right of the State of New South Wales, 2012.

National literacy learning progression

The National Literacy Learning Progression describes the observable behaviours as students gain proficiency in using Standard Australian English language.

When working towards achieving the outcomes:

EN3-1A the sub-elements (and levels) of Listening (LiS7–LiS8), Interacting (InT5–InT6), Speaking (SpK6–SpK7) and Understanding texts (UnT7–UnT9), describe observable behaviours that can assist teachers in making evidence-based decisions about student development and future learning.

EN3-5B the sub-elements (and levels) of Listening (LiS7–LiS8), Interacting (InT7), Speaking (SpK7), Understanding texts (UnT8–UnT9) and Creating texts (CrT9–CrT10), describe observable behaviours that can assist teachers in making evidence-based decisions about student development and future learning.

EN3-7C the sub-elements (and levels) of Listening (LiS7), Understanding texts (UnT9–UnT10) and Creating texts (CrT9–CrT10), describe observable behaviours that can assist teachers in making evidence-based decisions about student development and future learning.

EN3-8D the sub-elements (and levels) of Listening (LiS7–LiS8), Interacting (InT7), Speaking (SpK7–SpK8) and Understanding texts (UnT8–UnT10), describe observable behaviours that can assist teachers in making evidence-based decisions about student development and future learning.

EN3-9E the sub-elements (and levels) of Listening (LiS8) and Interacting (InT5–InT6), describe observable behaviours that can assist teachers in making evidence-based decisions about student development and future learning.

National Literacy Learning Progression ©Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA) is licenced under CC BY4.0

ESL Scales

Identified syllabus outcomes in this unit:

EN3-1A The level on the ESL scales needed to achieve this English syllabus outcome is Oral Interaction level 7/8. The teaching focus and pathway of learning will be mainly within the Language and cultural understanding and Strategies ESL scales strand organisers. See ESL scales outcomes 1.2, 1.4, 2.2, 2.4, 3.2, 3.4, 4.2, 4.4, 5.2, 5.4, 6.2, 6.4, 7.2, 7.4.

EN3-5B The level on the ESL scales needed to achieve this English syllabus outcome is Writing level 6/7. The teaching focus and pathway of learning will be within the Language and cultural understanding ESL scales strand organiser. See ESL scales outcomes B1.6, B2.6, B3.6, 1.10, 2.10, 3.10, 4.10, 5.10, 6.10, 7.10.

EN3-7C The levels on the ESL scales needed to achieve this English syllabus outcome are Writing level 6/7, Reading and Responding level 6/7 and Oral Interaction level 7/8. The teaching focus and pathway of learning will be within the Communication ESL scales strand organiser. See ESL scales outcomes for Oral Interaction: 1.1, 2.1, 3.1, 4.1, 5.1, 6.1, 7.1; Reading and Responding: B1.1, B2.1, B3.1, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, 5.5, 6.5; Writing: B1.5, B2.5, B3.5, 1.9, 2.9, 3.9, 4.9, 5.9, 6.9.

EN3-8D The levels on the ESL scales needed to achieve this English syllabus outcome are Writing level 6/7, Reading and Responding level 6/7 and Oral Interaction level 7/8. The teaching focus and pathway of learning will be within the Language and cultural understanding ESL scales strand organiser. See ESL scales outcomes for Oral Interaction: 1.3, 2.3, 3.3, 4.3, 5.3, 6.3, 7.3; Reading and Responding: B1.3, B2.3, B3.3, 1.7, 2.7, 3.7, 4.7, 5.7, 6.7; Writing: B1.7, B2.7, B3.7, 1.11, 2.11, 3.11, 4.11, 5.11, 6.11.

EN3-9E The levels on the ESL scales needed to achieve this English syllabus outcome are Writing level 6/7, Reading and Responding level 6/7 and Oral Interaction level 7/8. The teaching focus and pathway of learning will be within the Strategies ESL scales strand organiser. See ESL scales outcomes for Oral Interaction: 1.4, 2.4, 3.4, 4.4, 5.4, 6.4, 7.4; Reading and Responding: B1.4, B2.4, B3.4, 1.8, 2.8, 3.8, 4.8, 5.8, 6.8; Writing: B1.8, B2.8, B3.8, 1.12, 2.12, 3.12, 4.12, 5.12, 6.12

The tension image resource listed in the activities is at the end of this document. Teachers are encouraged to source additional or alternate resources to suit the interests, needs and abilities of their students.

Narrative

Narrative is fundamental to thinking. When we think, we think in narrative form. Narrative can refer to a story itself or to the conventions by which we communicate and understand it. These conventions are the way we construct a world that sets up and depends on expectations of human behaviour to amplify it.

Stage 3 English concept statement

Students understand that there are conventions of the narrative form that combine to involve responders in the story. They learn that narrative engages responders through:

  • recognisable characters, events and places
  • skilful plot development
  • perceptible mood and atmosphere
  • evocative images and imagery that complement the story
  • narrative voice and voices of characters.

They learn that these conventions are adapted to different modes and media.

Vocabulary to explore – narrative, Aboriginal, inanimate, tension, strange, moral and alternate.

1. My favourite place

Students describe in detail a familiar place using descriptive language. This place could include a holiday destination, a shop, cubby house, bedroom, local park or backyard.

Students make connections to places in familiar texts that are similar or dissimilar to the place they describe.

Note: Teachers to make links to the connection to Country and the importance of the land to Aboriginal people. Sharing a picture of the local area would be beneficial. [Learning across the curriculum content: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures, Personal and social capability]

Opportunities for assessment
  • makes connections within and between texts
  • actively listens to stay on topic in discussions

2. What if

The ‘What if’ challenge helps encourage students to see the link between the posing of interesting hypothetical questions and the creation of an entertaining piece of writing.

To begin this activity, have the students come up with a single ‘What If’ question which they can then write down on a piece of paper. For example, ‘What if everyone in the world knew what you were thinking?’ or ‘What if your pet dog could talk?’

Students fold up their questions and place them into a hat or container.

Each student picks one out of the hat and spends a set period with their peer discussing their response to this hypothetical question.

Peers may present their responses back to the class, to ensure students are listening, challenge students to share their peer’s response back. [Learning across the curriculum content: critical and creative thinking]

Opportunities for assessment
  • organises more complex ideas or concepts logically, selecting details to accentuate key points
  • speaks on a range of real or imagined topics that include ideas or concepts from learning areas
  • identifies and paraphrases key points of a speaker’s arguments

3. What happened next?

In small groups or pairs, students discuss ‘what might happen’ after a shared text has ended.

What did the characters do? Where does the story go?

Do the characters change? What events may take place?

Students to share with the class. [Learning across the curriculum content: critical and creative thinking]

Opportunities for assessment
  • interprets events, situations and characters in texts
  • thinks imaginatively when engaging with texts

4. Tale of an object

An inanimate object is chosen (such as a pen, hat or bag).

The structure of a narrative is reinforced as the object is passed around the group, and a story is constructed.

With each pair of hands, the orientation, complication and resolution are highlighted.

A student makes a decision when it reaches as to how they will contribute, for example, they may choose to add detail about the setting, character or created event.

The teacher can indicate when the narrative is drawing to a close and the final student says the conclusion.

[Learning across the curriculum content: critical and creative thinking]

Opportunities for assessment
  • participates in and contributes to discussions
  • thinks imaginatively when engaging with texts and objects
  • interprets events, situations and characters in texts.
Resources
  • inanimate objects

5. Think tank

Discuss with students that the first ideas are usually the ‘ordinary’ ideas because those are the ones everyone else thinks of too, so come up with ten ideas to find just one great idea.

In small groups, students have five minutes to brainstorm ten different ways to approach a story about ‘gold’.

If necessary, use the following prompts to assist groups:

  • a wedding ring found on the beach
  • a gold nugget discovered on a school excursion
  • golden sunsets, sand and memories from a holiday
  • a wedding proposal that went horribly wrong

After groups have discussed ten approaches, the group must decide on one approach and share with the class why they selected this one.

Opportunities for assessment
  • uses information to support and elaborate on a point of view
  • uses interaction skills, including active listening behaviours and communicates in a clear, coherent manner

6. Tension

In small groups, view the image of the man falling.

Group discussion about the tension created. How do you feel viewing this image?

Discuss the scene using the ‘five + 1 senses’ (see, hear, touch, taste, smell and feel).

Groups to share ideas with the class.

Opportunities for assessment
  • interprets events, situations and characters in texts
  • thinks imaginatively when engaging with texts.
Resource

7. Alternatives

Students to identify a familiar text. Students will think of an alternate ending to the text.

Student share with class the alternate endings and discuss the ramifications to characters and plot if the resolution is changed.

Opportunities for assessment
  • plans, rehearses and delivers presentations, selecting and sequencing appropriate content
  • adapts aspects of print or media texts to create new texts

8. Through the window

Students are to imagine they are looking out the window and they see something very strange. This may be a strange animal, phenomena or event.

Students describe in vivid detail what they are ‘seeing’.

Students are encouraged to use descriptive language and include characters and setting.

Opportunities for assessment
  • elaborates on ideas
  • uses a range of adjectives and figurative language

9. Dreaming stories

Share several Dreaming stories with students.

Discuss oral storytelling of the Aboriginal cultures and the importance of elders in storytelling.

In pairs, students to discuss the characters, sequence of events, setting and moral/message in a particular Dreaming story. Continuing to work in pairs, the students can discuss a story of their own, and discuss what moral or message could be transferred through the telling of their personal story.

[Learning across the curriculum content: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures]

Opportunities for assessment
  • responds appropriately to the reading of texts to demonstrate enjoyment and pleasure
  • demonstrates understanding of ideas and issues in texts
  • responds to and appreciates how Dreaming stories form part of an oral tradition for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples

10. Morals and messages

Students plan, rehearse and present a short presentation to the class identifying the moral and messages in a text.

Students may select to discuss several texts that contain a similar theme and message.[Learning across the curriculum content – ethical understanding]

Opportunities for assessment
  • identifies and explores underlying themes and central storylines in imaginative texts

Character

Stage 3 English concept statement: Students understand that characters trigger an imaginative response through identification. They learn that characters may:

  • be complex having a range of characteristics or simple with one salient feature
  • change as a result of events or remain unchanging
  • have individual characteristics or be based on a stereotype.

Vocabulary to explore: character, perspective, outrageous, personification, condemn, stereotypical, villain, anti-hero, exaggerate.

1. Two truths and one lie

Students use the character from a shared or familiar text and describe the character in detail to a partner or the class using two truths and one lie. Students ask their partner or the class to try to identify the part of the description that is untrue.

Opportunities for assessment
  • rephrases or clarifies to repair meaning
  • uses rich, evocative descriptive language

2. Two truths and one lie

Students use the character from a shared or familiar text and describe the character in detail to a partner or the class using two truths and one lie. Students ask their partner or the class to try to identify the part of the description that is untrue.

Opportunities for assessment
  • rephrases or clarifies to repair meaning
  • uses rich, evocative descriptive language

3. Draw the character

Students draw a picture of an outrageous fictional character.

Ask students to describe the character in detail a partner and the partner is to draw a picture based on the description.

Students compare their character pictures to evaluate the effectiveness of the student description.

Opportunities for assessment
  • uses rich, evocative descriptive language
  • selects vocabulary to intensify and sharpen the focus
  • uses language creatively.

4. Personification

Students choose an object from their immediate environment and turn it into a character (personification). Give the character humorous characteristics, goals, flaws, feelings and ways of communicating.

Describe the character to the class or to a small group. Class discusses the effectiveness of the personification, for example, did the object’s personality, actions, thoughts and traits match the object? What effect did it have on the audience?

Opportunities for assessment
  • shows an increasing awareness of audience by moderating length, content and delivery of spoken texts
  • identifies how vocabulary is used for impact.

5. If I could be a character

Discuss how characters often exhibit exaggerations of personality. Students select two or three aspects of their personality to exaggerate and using the voice of third person, describe themselves to a partner as if they were a character from a text.

Identify the ways they would speak and act and how other characters might interact with them.

Partners evaluate the effectiveness of the description in terms of the use of vocabulary, and how the description made them feel or react. Partner gives “two stars and a wish” to the speaker.

Opportunities for assessment
  • identifies how vocabulary is used to impact on the target audience
  • identifies how spoken language is used for different effects
  • selects appropriate listening strategies for planned and unplanned situations

6. Characters on trial

A villainous character from a familiar text is on trial for their actions.

Students decide whether they will defend or condemn the character’s actions, behaviours and motives and then present their arguments to the class or a small group in the form of a court case, with defence and prosecution sides.

Opportunities for assessment
  • evaluates strategies used by the speaker to elicit emotional responses
  • identifies how speakers’ language can be inclusive or alienating
  • identifies how vocabulary is used to impact on the target audience

7. Stereotypical characters

Students share their understanding of stereotypical characters. Examples include trolls, fairy tale stepmothers and fairy godmothers. The teacher explains that a stereotype is an overly simple view or opinion of a person, a group or a thing. It is stereotypical to say that all elderly people are frail.

Students explain to a partner what they know about a typical stepmother character in stories they have read/viewed. Identify other stereotypical characters in texts and identify the ways they have been portrayed.

Discuss the purpose of stereotypes. Why do authors use them?

Opportunities for assessment
  • identifies how vocabulary is used to impact on the target audience
  • asks pertinent questions to make connections between a range of ideas.

8. From my point of view

Students imagine they are a character in a well-known fairy tale (for example wolf in The Three Little Pigs, the witch in Hansel and Gretel or Grandma in Little Red Riding Hood) or a character in a familiar text.

Students retell a part of a story from a character's point of view, focusing on the characters motivations, feelings and thoughts.

Opportunities for assessment
  • plans, rehearses and delivers presentations
  • identifies and summarises key ideas and information.

9. Guess who?

Students choose a familiar character from a text.

Without naming the character, the student describes that character to a peer, focusing on the character’s actions and behaviours, not appearance.

The peer tries to guess the character, using the clues given.

Opportunities for assessment
  • speaks on a range of real or imagined topics
  • uses adverbials to give more precise meaning to verbs (talks loudly).

10. The Anti-hero

Present the term ‘anti-hero’ to the class and discuss what they think that means in comparison to heroes and villains.

Discuss the difference and find examples of anti-heroes in texts well-known to the students and explore their stories such as Pippi Longstocking, Bruce the Shark (from Finding Nemo).

Discuss how anti-heroes are complex characters and that their redeemable attributes, past trials, or good intentions are usually not discovered until later in the story or at the end. Explore particular characters and their importance to the stories of which they play a role.

Opportunities for assessment
  • explores how the reader’s feelings towards characters may change
  • compares and expresses their understanding of complex characters and makes connections between characters in different stories.

Connotation, imagery and symbol

Stage 3 English concept statement – Students understand that richer meanings are produced when responders recognise and engage with imagery. They learn that:

  • imagery prompts evocative comparisons which may add new meanings to a text,
  • figurative language extends the meanings of words,
  • figurative language compresses ideas through the connections it makes
  • figurative language can persuade, inform and engage audiences emotionally in different modes and media.

Vocabulary to explore: connotation, imagery, symbol, simile, metaphor, alliteration

1. Tuning into senses

Students sit back to back with a partner, in total silence, and write down everything they can hear for two minutes.

Students compare lists with their partner.

Choose some of the sounds to discuss in descriptive detail. For example: car driving past- the motor had a low rumbling sound. Did any particular sounds connote particular feelings?

Opportunities for assessment
  • selects appropriate listening strategies
  • uses language creatively.

2. The Sea

Students listen to the audio version of the poem ‘The Sea’ from The School Magazine, or another poem selected by the teacher.

As students listen to the poem, they sketch an image that comes into their mind created by the poem.

Students add nouns, adjectives and verbs to describe their sketch.

Opportunities for assessment
  • explores the use of figurative language
  • responds to moderately complex and sophisticated texts.
Resources

3. Weather similes

Students describe the weather using similes.

For example:

  • The wind hissed and roared like a dragon.
  • The wind made the doors rattle like snare drums.
Opportunities for assessment
  • uses similes to create a clear image

4. Ultimate bedroom

Students draw a picture of their ultimate bedroom.

Students use all the senses to describe the bedroom to a peer using as much description as possible, without showing their drawn picture.

Students ask for feedback from their peer – was the description rich enough to allow a mental picture of the bedroom be built in the listeners mind?

[Learning across the curriculum content: creative and critical thinking, personal and social capability]

Opportunities for assessment
  • demonstrates active listening skills
  • uses rich, evocative, descriptive language.

5. Descriptive location

Students speak with a partner to describe a location in their local area.

For example beach, river, rainforest.

Students will say a descriptive word or phrase, using a limited number of sequential letters from the alphabet to describe the location, without naming the place.

The partner is to use the clues to identify the location. Swap roles.

For example:

A – amazingly clear

B – beautifully cool

C – calming

Opportunities for assessment
  • uses a range of emotive language
  • uses language creatively.

6. Weather alliteration

Students describe various weather conditions using alliteration with a partner.

For example – The wind was whipping wildly at the windmill.

Opportunities for assessment
  • uses figurative language

7. Symbol

In small groups, students brainstorm symbols. What do these symbols actually symbolise beyond what is obvious?

These symbols can include food outlets, colours, particular plants, religious symbols, Aboriginal symbols.

Students present to the class their understanding of these different types of symbols and what they might mean. Questions to consider:

  • Are symbols universal?
  • Can a symbol change over time?
  • Does everybody interpret a particular symbol the same way? Why?
  • How are symbols used in texts?

[Learning across the curriculum content: personal and social capability, difference and diversity]

Opportunities for assessment
  • organises more complex ideas or concepts logically
  • uses technical vocabulary.
Resource
  • everyday symbols (teacher to source)

8. Guided imagery

Students find a space to relax, close their eyes and listen to the guided imagery recording.

During and after listening to the guided imagery, students sketch an image of the scene they imagined.

Students to share an image with a peer or in small groups and describe the setting.

Opportunities for assessment
  • uses figurative language
  • selects appropriate listening strategies

Resource:

9. Word bounce

In pairs, students think of a place they both know. For example a pool, court, park or a house.

Students play ‘descriptive word bounce’ taking it in turns to say a single word to describe the place.

The game continues until players cannot think of any more words.

Students are encouraged to use all senses when thinking of words to describe their place.

Opportunities for assessment
  • uses creative language
  • consistently uses a range of synonyms to add variety

10. Short presentation

Students revise the meaning of connotation.

Students will select an animal that is often featured in texts.

Example: fox, eagle, dove, snake, meerkat, wolf, pig.

Students plan and prepare a short presentation around the connotations these animals have.

Why have authors used them?

What do they symbolise?

How do they make the audience feel?

Discuss personal symbolisation of the animal to self.

[Learning across the curriculum content: creative and critical thinking, personal and social capability, information and communication technology capability]

Opportunities for assessment
  • gives an extended explanation
  • supports an opinion with evidence
  • selects voice appropriate to purpose
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