Stage 2 Speaking and listening

Relevant NSW K-10 English Syllabus speaking and listening outcomes and content points have been identified. Not all outcomes and content points are listed here as students work towards achieving the outcomes over a two year period.

Listening opportunities allow students to use various listening behaviours to gather general ideas and key points as they become increasingly proficient at building meaning from a variety of formal and informal listening situations.

Speaking opportunities allow students to identify the effect of purpose, audience and culture on spoken texts, identifying common organisational patterns and language features of some spoken texts.

Interacting opportunities allow students to communicate expressively, becoming increasingly proficient as they share ideas and information in a widening variety of both social, school and classroom situations. Students explore a variety of roles when interacting in pairs and groups, attending to different views and responding appropriately.

EN2-1A – communicates in a range of informal and formal contexts by adopting a range of roles in group, classroom, school and community contexts

  • use interaction skills, including active listening behaviours and communicate in a clear, coherent manner using a variety of every day and learned vocabulary and appropriate tone, pace, pitch and volume
  • use information to support and elaborate on a point of view
  • interact effectively in groups or pairs, adopting a range of roles

EN2-6B – identifies the effect of purpose and audience on spoken texts, distinguishes between different forms of English and identifies organisational patterns and features

  • listen to and contribute to conversations and discussions to share information and ideas and negotiate in collaborative situations
  • plan and deliver short presentations, providing some key details in logical sequence
  • enhance presentations by using some basic oral presentation strategies, e.g. using notes as prompts

EN2-10C – thinks imaginatively, creatively and interpretively about information, ideas and texts when responding to and composing texts

  • justify interpretations of a text, including responses to characters, information and ideas, for example, 'The main character is selfish because.'
  • respond to a range of texts, for example, through role-play or drama, for pleasure and enjoyment, and express thoughtful conclusions about those texts
  • share responses to a range of texts and identify features which increase reader enjoyment

EN2-11D – responds to and composes a range of texts that express viewpoints of the world similar to and different from their own

  • identify the point of view in a text and suggest alternative points of view
  • discuss literary experiences with others, sharing responses and expressing a point of view
  • justify personal opinions by citing evidence, negotiating with others and recognising opinions presented
  • respond to and appreciate how Dreaming stories form part of an oral tradition for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples

EN2-12E – recognises and uses an increasing range of strategies to reflect on their own and others’ learning

  • appreciate how the reader or viewer can enjoy a range of literary experiences through texts
  • discuss the roles and responsibilities when working as a member of a group and understand the benefits of working collaboratively with peers to achieve a goal
  • describe how some skills in speaking, listening, reading/viewing, writing/representing help the development of language learners
  • reflect on own reading and identify the qualities of texts that have contributed to enjoyment of the text

Some students will communicate using augmentative and alternative communication strategies to demonstrate their skills. This may include digital technologies, sign language, braille, real objects, photographs and pictographs. It is important to take account of the individual communication strategies used by these students within the context of the English K–10 Syllabus and the learning opportunities below.

English K-10 Syllabus © NSW Education Standards Authority (NESA) for and on behalf of the Crown in right of the State of New South Wales, 2012.

National literacy learning progression

The National Literacy Learning Progression describes the observable behaviours as students gain proficiency in using Standard Australian English language.

When working towards achieving the outcomes:

  • EN2-1A the sub-elements (and levels) of Listening (LiS4–LiS5), Interacting (InT3–InT5), Speaking (SpK4–SpK5) and Understanding texts (UnT4-UnT7) describe observable behaviours that can assist teachers in making evidence-based decisions about student development and future learning.
  • EN2-6B the sub-elements (and levels) of Listening (LiS5–LiS6), Interacting (InT4–InT5), Speaking (SpK3–SpK5) and Understanding texts (UnT5-UnT7), describe observable behaviours that can assist teachers in making evidence-based decisions about student development and future learning.
  • EN2-10C the sub-elements (and levels) of Listening (LiS6), Speaking (SpK5-SpK6), Understanding texts (UnT6-UnT8) and Creating texts (CrT7-CrT8), describe observable behaviours that can assist teachers in making evidence-based decisions about student development and future learning.
  • EN2-11D the sub-elements (and levels) of Listening (LiS5–LiS6), Interacting (InT5), Speaking (SpK4-SpK6), Understanding texts (UnT6-UnT7) and Creating texts (CrT6-CrT7), describe observable behaviours that can assist teachers in making evidence-based decisions about student development and future learning.
  • EN2-12E the sub-elements (and levels) of Listening (LiS5), Interacting (InT5) and Understanding texts (UnT5), describe observable behaviours that can assist teachers in making evidence-based decisions about student development and future learning.

National Literacy Learning Progression © Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA) is licenced under CC BY4.0

ESL scales

Identified syllabus outcomes in this unit:

  • EN2-1A The level on the ESL scales needed to achieve this English syllabus outcome is Oral Interaction level 6. The teaching focus and pathway of learning will be mainly within the Communication ESL scales strand organiser. See ESL scales outcomes 1.1, 2.1, 3.1, 4.1, 5.1, 6.1.
  • EN2-6B The level on the ESL scales needed to achieve this English syllabus outcome is Oral interaction level 6. The teaching focus and pathway of learning will be mainly within the Communication and Language and cultural understanding ESL scales strand organisers. See ESL scales outcomes 1.1, 1.2, 2.1, 2.2, 3.1, 3.2, 4.1, 4.2, 5.1, 5.2, 6.1, 6.2.
  • EN2-10C The levels on the ESL scales needed to achieve this English syllabus outcome are Writing level 5, Reading and responding level 5 and Oral interaction level 6. The teaching focus and pathway of learning will be within the Communication ESL scales strand organiser. See ESL scales outcomes for Oral Interaction: 1.1, 2.1, 3.1, 4.1, 5.1, 6.1; Reading and Responding: B1.1, B2.1, B3.1, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, 5.5; Writing: B1.5, B2.5, B3.5, 1.9, 2.9, 3.9, 4.9, 5.9.
  • EN2-11D The levels on the ESL scales needed to achieve this English syllabus outcome are Writing level 5, Reading and Responding level 5 and Oral Interaction level 6. The teaching focus and pathway of learning will be within the Language and cultural understanding ESL scales strand organiser. See ESL scales outcomes for Oral Interaction: 1.3, 2.3, 3.3, 4.3, 5.3, 6.3; Reading and Responding: B1.3, B2.3, B3.3, 1.7, 2.7, 3.7, 4.7, 5.7; Writing: B1.7, B2.7, B3.7, 1.11, 2.11, 3.11, 4.11, 5.11.
  • EN2-12E The levels on the ESL scales needed to achieve this English syllabus outcome are Writing level 5, Reading and Responding level 5 and Oral Interaction level 6. The teaching focus and pathway of learning will be within the Strategies ESL scales strand organiser. See ESL scales outcomes for Oral Interaction: 1.4, 2.4, 3.4, 4.4, 5.4, 6.4; Reading and Responding: B1.4, B2.4, B3.4, 1.8, 2.8, 3.8, 4.8, 5.8; Writing: B1.8, B2.8, B3.8, 1.12, 2.12, 3.12, 4.12, 5.12.

All resources listed in the activities are included at the end of this document. Teachers are encouraged to source additional or alternate resources to suit the interests, needs and abilities of their students.

Narrative

Narrative is fundamental to thinking. When we think, we think in narrative form. Narrative can refer to a story itself or to the conventions by which we communicate and understand it. These conventions are the way we construct a world that sets up and depends on expectations of human behaviour to amplify it.

Stage 2 English concept statement

Students understand that narratives may be interpreted in various ways. They learn that:

  • characters and events may be drawn differently for different purposes, audience, modes and media
  • stories may be interpreted through action, character and setting
  • stories present a view of the world.

Vocabulary to explore – narrative, rhythm, intonation, tension, strange, moral and alternate.

1. My favourite place

Students describe in detail a familiar place using descriptive language. This place could include a holiday destination, a shop, cubby house, bedroom, local park or backyard.

Students make connections to places in familiar texts that are similar or dissimilar to the place they describe.

Teacher note – make links to the connection to Country and the importance of the land to Aboriginal people. Sharing a picture of a local area would be beneficial.

[Learning across the curriculum content: personal and social capability]

Opportunities for assessment
  • makes connections within and between texts
  • actively listens to stay on topic in group discussions

2. Poetry

Students listen to the poem ‘Francesca Frog’ by Maura Finn found in The School Magazine. As a class, discuss the way that the reader uses pausing, rhythm, intonation and tone to engage the audience.

  • What effect does this have on the poem?
  • What is the author’s intention?

Students read a part or all the poem aloud, attempting to use similar intonation.

Opportunities for assessment
  • controls tone, volume, pitch and pace to suit content and audience
Resource

3. Retelling of events

After listening to, or reading a text, students retell the story to a peer. Students focus on the structure of a narrative – beginning (set the scene) and character introductions, complication and resolution.

Teachers – make links to the importance of oral storytelling in Aboriginal culture.

Students are encouraged to retell events in a logical order.

Opportunities for assessment
  • retells familiar stories and events in logical sequence

4. Engages reader

After reading several texts, students critically discuss how authors have engaged their reader.

Prompt students to think about – language choices the author has made, illustrations, amount of text, character development, plot, tension.

Which text was most effective in engaging the audience? Why? Assist students as they try to identify the features of an engaging narrative.

Opportunities for assessment
  • discusses how writers and composers of texts engage the interest of the reader
  • interacts effectively in groups, sharing ideas and opinions
  • identifies creative language features that contribute to engagement

5. Think tank

Discuss with students that the first ideas are usually the ‘ordinary’ ideas because those are the ones everyone else thinks of too, so come up with ten ideas to find just one great idea.

In small groups, students have five minutes to brainstorm ten different ways to approach a story about ‘gold’.

If necessary, use the following prompts to assist groups:

  • a wedding ring found on the beach
  • a gold nugget discovered on a school excursion
  • golden sunsets, sand and memories from a holiday
  • a wedding proposal that went horribly wrong

After groups have discussed ten approaches, the group must decide on one approach and share with the class why they selected this one. [Learning across the curriculum content: critical and creative thinking].

Opportunities for assessment
  • uses information to support and elaborate on a point of view
  • uses interaction skills, including active listening behaviours and communicate in a clear, coherent manner.
Resource
  • quality text

6. Tension

As a class, view the image of the man falling. The class discuss the tension created. Why and how does this image create tension? Discuss the scene using the ‘five + 1 senses’ (see, hear, touch, taste, smell and feel).

Opportunities for assessment
  • contributes appropriately to class discussions
Resource
  • tension image

7. Alternatives

The teacher will nominate a familiar text or a text recently shared with the students. Students are encouraged to create an alternate ending to the text.

Students share with peers the alternate ending and discuss why the changes were made and how this might affect the audience. [Learning across the curriculum content: critical and creative thinking]

Opportunities for assessment
  • plans and delivers short presentations
  • discusses how writers and composers of texts engage the interest of the reader

8. Through the window

Students are to look out of the window and imagine they see something very strange. For example, a strange creature or event.

Students describe to their partner what they are seeing.

Students are encouraged to use descriptive language and include characters and setting. [Learning across the curriculum content: critical and creative thinking]

Opportunities for assessment
  • elaborates on ideas
  • uses a range of adjectives and figurative language

9. Dreaming stories

Share several Dreaming stories with students.

Discuss oral storytelling of the Aboriginal cultures and the importance of elders in storytelling.

In pairs, students to discuss the characters, sequence of events, setting and moral/message in a particular Dreaming story. Continuing to work in pairs, the students can discuss a story of their own, and discuss what moral or message could be transferred through the telling of their personal story. [Learning across the curriculum content: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures]

Opportunities for assessment
  • responds appropriately to the reading of texts to demonstrate enjoyment and pleasure
  • demonstrates an understanding of ideas and issues in texts
  • responds to and appreciates how Dreaming stories form part of an oral tradition for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.
Resource
  • Dreaming stories

10. Story cubes

Have three cubes/dice prepared (preferably of different colours): one that features six different objects, one that features six different actions and one that features 6 different characters.

In groups, students are given the three cubes/dice to roll at once. Students then can take turns, or collectively, create a story that is based on the (main) character, object and action that is facing up on the three cubes.

To add complexity or challenge, add other cubes/dice that for example, feature six different emotions, places/settings. Character cubes/dice could be split into two - one for protagonists, the other for antagonists. [Learning across the curriculum content: critical and creative thinking]

Opportunities for assessment
  • provides feedback based on structure, how well they included the three aspects and the tension and interest, or criteria already decided and shared at the beginning of the activity
  • speaks on a range of imagined topics
  • includes details and elaborations to expand on ideas
Resources
  • cubes/large dice
  • pictures of character types, objects, actions (or other extended ideas) to attach to sides of cubes/dice.

Character

Character is an important concept in narrative as a driver of the action, a function in the plot, a way of engaging or positioning a reader or as a way of representing its thematic concerns. The way character is read is an indication of particular approaches to texts, be it through personal engagement or critical response. Character is traditionally viewed as a description of a fictional person. As a construct, it is made up of verbal or visual statements about what that fictional person does, says and thinks and what other fictional characters and the author of the text say about him or her.

Stage 2 English concept statement

Students understand that characters are represented in such a way as to have motives for actions. They learn that characters:

  • may be judged by the reader, the other character constructs in the text, the narrator or the ‘author’

  • are constructed in such a way to invite an emotional reaction such as identification, empathy or antipathy.

Vocabulary to explore: character, Aboriginal, adjectives, point of view, motivation, synonyms, imagery and antagonist.

1. Guess who

Students choose a familiar character from a text (movie or book).

Without naming the character, the student describes that character to a peer, focusing on the character’s appearance, actions and behaviours.

The peer tries to guess the character, using the clues given.

Opportunities for assessment
  • speaks on a range of real or imagined topics
  • uses adverbials to give more precise meaning to verbs (talking loudly)
Resource
  • character list (teacher identified)

2. Act it out

Students take turns to role-play familiar characters from a text. As that character (which may or may not be a major character) they can retell part of the story from their point of view. Students are encouraged to pay attention to voice, body language and facial expressions.

Opportunities for assessment
  • attends to sequence when recounting ideas
  • listens to a familiar story and retells, making minor adaptations if needed
  • retell or perform part of a story from a character's point of view

3. Noun groups – character

A noun group is a group of words relating to, or building on, a noun.

Students are given a noun (character) such as bird.

That noun is built into a noun group using adjectives.

That bird

That noisy bird

That noisy, colourful bird

That noisy, colourful bird is eating all the chips.

Students build noun groups from the list of examples provided.

Opportunities for assessment
  • uses a broader range of more complex noun groups to expand description

Resource
  • noun group list

4. Character conversations 

Explicitly discuss the features of conversation – topic introduction and maintenance, turn-taking, body language, active listening and appropriate interpersonal conventions. 

After the class has listened to a narrative, identify the characters and discuss the relationships to each other. Students are to imagine and then act out a conversation between the characters. This dramatization may occur before the story began, after the story finished, the first time the characters met or at the point of conflict. 

Opportunities for assessment:
  • understand how to communicate effectively in pairs and groups using agreed interpersonal
  • conventions, active listening, appropriate language and taking turns

5. Same, same but different

In small groups, students discuss a character from a text (movie or book) that they personally connect with.

Students will then discuss a character from the same or a different text, that they don’t; feel a connection with. Students share what makes them connect – either through personality traits or events with a character. [Learning across the curriculum content: personal and social capability]

Opportunities for assessment
  • makes connections between students' own experiences and those of characters
  • uses information to support and elaborate on a point of view

6. Argue the point

Students use persuasive language and 3 arguments to convince the class of one of the following arguments.

Goldilocks should be charged with trespassing.

Jack should not have traded the cow for beans.

Cinderella should never have gone to the ball.

Hansel and Gretel should not have tried to eat the witch’s house.

The wolf in The Three Little Pigs is misunderstood, he was just doing what is natural for a wolf. [Learning across the curriculum content: critical and creative thinking]

Opportunities for assessment
  • uses a range of expressions to introduce a point of view
  • includes details and elaborations to expand ideas

 

7. Short presentation

Students select a character that they relate to, and plan and present a short presentation.

Students to include:

  • how they relate to the character
  • the characters goals and flaws
  • words and phrases that accurately describe this character.
Opportunities for assessment:
  • controls tone, volume, pitch and pace
  • delivers spoken texts on a range of topics
  • includes details and elaborations to expand ideas

8. Juicy words (synonyms)

Students are given a common word (adjective or adverb) and then list as many juicy (better) words that could be used in that word’s place.

For example – sad – heartbroken, melancholy, dismal

Students then use these new words in a sentence to describe a character.

Opportunities for assessment
  • uses language creatively
  • uses rich, descriptive language
  • selects more specific and precise words to replace general words
Resource
  • synonym list

9. Imagery

Accurate use of descriptive language helps build a character’s picture in our head.

Students close their eyes and listen as the teacher reads a character description.

Once students open their eyes, they can draw in vivid detail what they saw in their mind's eye.

Students share image and verbally describe it to a partner.

Opportunities for assessment
  • includes details and elaborations to expand ideas
  • responds to texts with unfamiliar content
Resource
  • teacher to source a character description

10. Character on trial

As a class, discuss the antagonists, or ‘villains’, in several fairy tales, familiar and contemporary texts. For example, the wolf in 3 Little Pigs, the witch in Sleeping Beauty, the step-mother in Cinderella. What are their character traits?

How does the author make us dislike the antagonist?

What motivates the antagonist to go against the main character?

Are antagonists always one-dimensional? Do they sometimes have redeeming characteristics?

Select one known antagonist and review their role in the text.

Set up a mock trial in the classroom. Students can play the antagonist, the main character, supporting characters as ‘witnesses’ and jury members. Teacher to act as the judge to control the discussion.

Each character to ask questions to the antagonist.

Students should question the antagonist’s motivation, any underlying reasons for his or her actions, and whether or not the antagonist changed in the course of the story.

Opportunities for assessment
  • uses persuasive language
  • use information to support and elaborate on a point of view
  • retells or performs part of a story from a character's point of view

 

Connotation, imagery and symbol

Words and images can signify more than what they denote, extending us beyond their literal everyday meanings to understand and experience one thing in terms of another. This extension of meaning may, through connotation, evoke associated feelings or, through imagery and symbol, lay down new traces of images, sounds, senses and ideas. Students understand that imagery is one way of connecting with an audience. They learn that figurative language has an effect on meaning, imagery may be expressed through comparisons and there are different types of figurative language in different types of texts and media and for different audiences and purposes.

Stage 2 English concept statement

Students understand that imagery is one way of connecting with an audience. They learn that:

  • figurative language has an effect on meaning
  • imagery may be expressed through comparisons
  • there are different types of figurative language in different types of texts and media and for different audiences and purposes.

Vocabulary to explore: Aboriginal, connotation, simile, onomatopoeia, alliteration, imagery, symbol.

1. Connotations

Students are presented with a colour and asked to respond with the feelings that the colour gives them. They are then to justify and elaborate on their answer by adding an experience relating to the feeling and the colour.

What connotations are associated with this colour by many people?

Do all people have the same connotations to this colour? Why?

Do you have a different connotation to this colour? Is it associated with a particular person, event, or time?

[Learning across the curriculum content: critical and creative thinking]

Opportunities for assessment
  • speaks on a range of real or imagined topics

  • explores the concept of connotation.
Resources
  • teacher to source

2. Similes

Students create similes that will match the given nouns.

Students will use similes to describe a colour.

Students select 2 nouns and colour from the table and create a simile.

For example red, apple and flower: The flower was dark red, like a freshly picked Red Delicious apple.

Opportunities for assessment
  • uses figurative language.
Resource
  • simile table

3. Guided Imagery

Students find a space to relax, close their eyes and listen to the guided imagery recording or the teacher reading the script. After listening to it, students sketch an image of the scene they imagined. Students to share the image with a peer or in small groups and describe the setting, adding elements they may have missed.

Opportunities for assessment
  • uses figurative language

  • selects appropriate listening strategies
Resource

4. Swap roles

Students work in pairs.

Each pair shares an image and takes 1 minute to look closely at this image.

One person (describer) describes the image in as much detail as possible, while the partner listens.

Using a different image, and swapping roles, repeat the activity.

[Learning across the curriculum content: critical and creative thinking]

Opportunities for assessment
  • presents simple ideas clearly in group situations

  • uses descriptive language when describing
Resources
  • images to describe

5. Imagine a pet

Students put themselves in the ‘shoes’ of a pet (dog, cat, mouse, fish).

Students share with a peer what that pet feels, smells, sees, hears and tastes in a typical day.

[Learning across the curriculum content: critical and creative thinking]

Opportunities for assessment
  • articulates feelings clearly

  • uses descriptive language when describing

6. Short presentation

Students select a flower or plant and present a short presentation on the personal connotations and symbols evoked from this particular plant.

Students to include how the colours, textures, scent, structure makes them feel, experiences (if any) with the plant, symbolism of plants or flowers in any texts they know

Opportunities for assessment
  • controls tone, volume, pitch and pace

  • delivers spoken texts on a range of topics

7. Detailed description

Students to look out a door or window and verbally describe what they see to a peer.

Students are encouraged to use figurative language (similes, alliteration or onomatopoeia) to enable the listener to have a clear ‘picture’ of what the space looks like.

[Learning across the curriculum content: critical and creative thinking]

Opportunities for assessment
  • uses figurative language

  • includes details and elaborations to expand ideas.

8. Imagery

Imagery helps us see colours, sounds, textures and feelings.

Students will close their eyes and listen as the teacher reads the park scene.

They then open their eyes and draw in vivid detail what they saw in their mind's eye.

Students share image and verbally describe to a partner.

[Learning across the curriculum content: critical and creative thinking]

Opportunities for assessment
  • uses rich, descriptive language

  • includes details and elaborations to expand ideas.
Resource
  • park scene

9. Symbols

In small groups, students brainstorm symbols. What do these symbols actually symbolise beyond what is obvious?

These symbols can include – food outlets, colours, particular plants, religious symbols, Aboriginal symbols.

Students present to the class their understanding of these different types of symbols and what they might mean.

Questions to consider:

  • Are symbols universal?
  • Can a symbol change over time?
  • Does everybody interpret a particular symbol the same way? Why?
  • How are symbols used in texts?

[Learning across the curriculum content: personal and social capability, difference and diversity]

Opportunities for assessment
  • explains new learning from interacting with others

  • organises ideas logically

10. Onomatopoeia

In small groups, present students with a theme, to which they must contribute as many onomatopoeic words as they can.

Themes can include:  

  • animal sounds (squeak, snort) 

  • water (babble, gurgle)

  • fire (snap, crackle) 

  • wind (whoosh, whirl) 

  • fighting (smack, slam)

Opportunities for assessment
  • interprets creative use of language (onomatopoeia)

Resources

  • A flower
  • The snake
  • My bike
  • One night
  • The dog
  • Those horses

  • A flower
  • The snake
  • My bike
  • One night
  • The dog
  • Those horses

  • A flower
  • The snake
  • My bike
  • One night
  • The dog
  • Those horses

  • A flower
  • The snake
  • My bike
  • One night
  • The dog
  • Those horses
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