Transcript for Supporting young learners – age-appropriate pedagogy

Supporting young learners – age-appropriate pedagogy video (36:56)

Narrator – Hi, welcome to supporting learning remotely for young students age appropriate pedagogy. Firstly, I would like to acknowledge the traditional custodians of the lands on which we are working and residing on. I pay respect to Elders past, present and emerging and extend that respect to all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples accessing this professional learning from across the state.

This is just one piece of online learning available from the suite. You may have already participated in the workshop learning from home K to six resource walk through or making the most of the early childhood learn from home resource is that just a quick recap, the department's learning from home website unpacks the way schools will maintain teaching and learning in the event of a prolong school closure or student absence. The site provides links to support teachers in the use of technology, advice for parents and carers, access to teaching and learning materials for teachers and parents and advice to support teachers working from home. Information and resources are being constantly added to the website, so check back regularly. One of my favourites that has been recently added is to the early stage one section is the mathematics digital student resource. There's a power point there, it has some great activities in video, so check it out.

So in this session, we're going to be looking at the following Australia professional standards for teachers. 1.2.2 structure teaching programs using research and collegial advice about how students learn. 2.1.2 applying knowledge of the content and teaching strategies of the teaching area to develop engaging teaching activities. 3.7.2 plan for appropriate and contextually relevant opportunities to parents and carers to be involved in their children's learning. And 4.2.2 establish and maintain orderly and workable routines to create an environment where students time is spent on learning tasks.

So in this session, we're going to really leverage off what it is you already know about supporting your young students learning using age appropriate pedagogies, and look at how that's going to fit in the context of students learning remotely. So we're going to look at the characteristics and approaches of age appropriate pedagogies. Explore how we can use age appropriate pedagogies in the context of remote learning, and reflect on strategies to support learners remotely in your particular context.

So let's start off by setting the scene a little. Central to supporting students learning is teachers using their professional judgments, as early years teachers there is a need to think differently to colleagues working in stages two and three, so you may have been thinking or wondering about what this might look like. How are you going to support your students remotely, thinking about ways in which you can engage students in age appropriate learning? What strategies will be possible for your students and their families? What are the possibilities to support your students continuity of learning? And what you need to think about as an early years teacher with so many questions about supporting students learning in this new way. Let's just first to go back to what it is that we do know. What is early years pedagogy?

The term pedagogy refers to the holistic nature of early years educators, professional practice, curriculum decision making, teaching and learning.

Part of that professional practice in curriculum decision making is teaches making professional judgments and decisions by weaving together their professional knowledge and skills and their knowledge of their students, families, and communities. As teachers work towards supporting students learning remotely their professional judgments will remain central in their decision making to facilitating students learning.

Teachers are drawing on creativity, intuition, and imagination to help them improvising and adjust their practice to suit the time, place, and the context of learning and in in this unprecedented situation, is something that we've already been seeing the collaboration and ingenuity of teachers as they plan to support their students and family remotely has been incredible.

Our current model of face to face delivery of teaching and learning is really being challenged at the moment, so we're looking at different ways to ensure continuity of learning for all of our students. Drawing on a range of perspectives and theories could support teachers to discuss theories and to identify the strengths and limitations of those theories. Look and find new ways of working fairly and justly. Age appropriate pedagogy support early years teachers, so from preschool to year two, to apply a range and balance of teaching approaches and characteristics of quality teaching. So let's go and unpack age appropriate pedagogies a little.

So in this first section will just give a little bit of the background of the research behind age appropriate pedagogies and the conceptual framework plus where you can access it. In 2015, the Queensland Department of Education partnered with Griffith University to prepare the foundation paper age appropriate pedagogies for the early years of schooling. It examines literature with specific attention on research from 10 longitudinal studies and the studies identified themes and key messages that informed pedagogical principles approaches and practice in the early years education included in that other characteristics of early learners.

Our contemporary views of early learners are coming from a variety of disciplines, including psychology, sociology, education and science and we know that our students learn best when they're actively engaged in purposeful learning experiences. Linking back to what we spoke about before, teachers are using their knowledge of students, including their interests, their strengths and capabilities to identify the most effective ways to teach. And in this way, teaching remotely is going to be no different because teachers are still working from their philosophy on how children learn in the early years there, using their professional knowledge and skills as well as the knowledge of their students and their families to make decisions about how they can support continuity of learning for their students remotely.

When we talk about our students learning best when they are actively engaged in purposeful learning experiences, were talking about students needing opportunities to develop and apply their learning in activities that are engaging and stimulating. To do this, teachers are really focusing on a holistic view of their students, their balancing their focus on the development of the students, academics, social emotional, physical, cognitive and creative skills, as well as considering the age, background, abilities, interests, and characteristics of individual learners and putting it into context and purpose for their teaching.

So what does this paper? What does this research say constitutes affective pedagogy? There are many research based theories and principles that have contributed to our understanding of affective pedagogy. From that abundance of theories developed overtime, the importance of three crucial elements have enjoyed keep coming back, and those are that effective pedagogy is learner centred. It involves scaffolding of learning and it engages the students actively in learning.

So what are age appropriate pedagogies? The term pedagogies in this case is used to embrace the rich array of practices associated with education in the early years. Age appropriate pedagogies attend to the variety of contextual, instructional, developmental, and interpersonal factors that impact on learning. At the moment there's a large contextual influence that is impacting on learning. Teachers are still needing to consider the development experience and associated characteristics of their individual students and select appropriately from abroad repertoire of approaches to support that continuity of learning for their students remotely. This whiteboard animation introduces the research based conceptual framework of age appropriate pedagogies with a focus on the 11 characteristics and the teaching approach is considered age appropriate for teaching in the early years.Age appropriate pedagogies are shaping teaching and learning in the early years of school now and into the future. The research shows children learn best when they are actively engaged in purposeful learning experiences. Australian curriculum outlines the knowledge, understanding and skills all young Australians should be told. Grounded in contemporary research literature. Age, appropriate pedagogies support teachers to identify the most effective way to teach curriculum content by providing a conceptual framework to support pedagogically decision making and reflection. Positioned at the centre of the age appropriate pedagogies, conceptual framework is the child, their interests and capabilities. The teacher is also represented with recognition of their interests, skills, capabilities and philosophies. The three vital and connected components of curriculum, context and evidence of learning. Situate teacher decision making within the teaching and learning process. The conceptual framework then outlines the various approaches of age appropriate pedagogies, inquiry, learning event based learning, project approach explicit instruction, play based learning, direct teaching and instruction, and a blended approach. And the inherent characteristics of age appropriate pedagogies, active, agentic, collaborative, creative, explicit language, rich and dialogic learner focused narrative, playful, responsive and scaffold a arrange and balance of approaches and characteristics are required overtime. The research literature is very clear that age appropriate pedagogies unnecessary in the early years of school to engage young learners achieve learning outcomes and set children up for long term success. Age appropriate pedagogies, shaping teaching and learning in the early years of school.

The video talked about using a range and balance of approaches overtime. So what will do now is briefly unpacked the characteristics of age appropriate pedagogy and how to think about the opportunities. That you're going to provide to support your students in your context to engage in learning at this particular point in time, which for many or all of your students is going to be working remotely.

The characteristics of age appropriate pedagogies are a set of desirable qualities teachers can consider when working with students, so their responsive to each individual students context and purpose for learning. There are 11 characteristics that form this set of desirable qualities teachers can consider when enacting age appropriate pedagogies. Active, agentic, collaborative, creative, explicit, language rich and dialogic, learner focused, narrative, playful, responsive and scaffolding.

The first characteristic is active. The active characteristic requires physical and embodied engagement across all areas of learning, whether it's indoors or outdoors. The students focus, concentration, motivation, and self regulation are enhanced through moving, doing, and interacting within a range of learning environments.

In thinking about the active characteristics and supporting students from your context remotely, a couple of things you might want to think about what open ended materials, including realistic symbolic and unstructured resource, is might your students already have access to at home, or what resource is make the school be able to provide? How do the students in your context have opportunities to engage in learning in a range of learning spaces? Do they have access to both the in indoors and outdoors.

The second characteristic is agentic. The agentic characteristic is about ensuring that students have a voice in their learning that their ideas and interests initiate, support and extend learning possibilities in order to build on their real world understandings and experiences.

So when thinking about the agentic characteristic and how to support our students support students from your context remotely, you might be thinking about how you might be able to provide opportunities for students to make decisions about their own learning. What opportunities might there be for students to build on real world understandings and experiences?

The third characteristic is collaborative. The collaborative characteristic is about being social and co-constructed, students and educators work together to identify ways of learning and understanding through sustained, shared thinking and action. When thinking about the collaborative characteristic and supporting students from your context remotely, perhaps thinking is there a way to provide students with opportunities to participate in learning experiences that are social and co-constructed?

The fourth characteristic is creative and the creative characteristic is about inviting students to consider. What if? They encourage investigations, inquiring artistry to explore new possibilities and ways of thinking.

When thinking about the creative characteristic and supporting students from your context remotely, you might be thinking how might you be able to encourage investigation, inquiry an artistry? How might you be able to initiate wondering moments, inviting students to consider what if?

The fifth characteristic is explicit. The explicit characteristic is about making conscious for both learners and educators. The relationship between learning purpose and process is employed, and the skills and understandings these processes support.

So we were thinking about the explicit characteristic and supporting students from your context remotely, you might be thinking about how you might be able to articulate the intent that underpins the learning experience that you're providing for students, thinking about how you could provide feedback to students to connect them with the strengths of their current learning and co-construct future learning goals.

The sixth characteristic is language rich and dialogic. The language rich and dialogic characteristic is about ensuring that learning occurs in environments where rich languages modelled and employed by both students and teachers. Meaningful dialogues between students as well as between students and teachers are created to support thinking, learning, engagement and imagination.

When thinking about language rich and dialogic characteristic and supporting students from your context remotely, you might be thinking is it possible to plan for and take the time to engage in meaningful conversations with the students? How might you provide a range of language models for the student to engage with? Example narrative, poetic, informative?

The seventh characteristic is learner focused. The learner focus characteristic is about recognising that all students learn in different ways and that learning is a highly individualised process. They also acknowledge differences in students physical, intellectual, cultural, social and personal experiences and perspectives.

When thinking about the learner focus characteristic and supporting students from your context remotely, you might consider what strategies you could use to discover students, emerging interests, ideas and views and their wider family and cultural experiences. And how you might be able to provide encouragement and feedback celebrating students attempts to try and retry new and challenging tasks.

The eighth characteristic is narrative. The narrative characteristic is about acknowledging the important role that personal, written, oral and digital stories play in our lives. They support both the production and comprehension of narratives through active processes, especially play.

When thinking about the narrative characteristic and supporting students from your context remotely, you might be thinking about how you can share literature with students is an everyday pleasurable, shared experience. How you might include opportunities for students to produce and comprehend personal, written, oral and digital stories.

The ninth characteristic is playful. The playful characteristic is about encouraging students to make connections through imagination and creativity to explore alternate worlds and ways of thinking. These worlds not bounded by reality offer the freedom students need to innovate and inaction new possibilities.

When thinking about the playful characteristic and supporting students from your context remotely, you might be thinking about how you could encourage extended periods of time for students to engage in playful learning. How you could be clear about the curriculum intent that underpins these extended playful learning experiences. You may also be interested in some of the other online professional learning around play based pedagogies, but there's part one and part two for supporting teachers an looking at ways of working in partnerships with families around improving meaningful learning through play.

The tenth characteristic is responsive. The responsive characteristic is about incorporating a willingness to be flexible to ensure that learning is always student context, content and discipline appropriate to achieve his teachers balance opportunities for structure and spontaneity, open ended in specific tasks and student led and teacher led learning.

When thinking about the responsive characteristic and supporting students from your context, remotely. You might consider to what extent you can be responsive to learning experiences that the students have initiated and how you might be responsive, flexible and open to alternate learning possibilities.

The eleventh and final characteristic is scaffolded, this scaffolded characteristic is about including such actions as modelling, encouraging, questioning, adding challenges, and giving feedback to provide the support needed to extend students existing capabilities. Effective scaffolding by both teachers and other students provides active structures to support new learning. It is then progressively withdrawn as learners gain increasing mastery.

When thinking about the scaffolding characteristic and supporting students from your context remotely might be thinking about how can you ensure that students know how to seek help? In what ways might you be able to support students with modelling questioning and feedback to extend students learning?

So at this point we might just take a pause and you can with the task you can go and access the age appropriate pedagogies website. Select one of the characteristics that we just spoke about that might suit your particular learners in your particular context, and have a little bit of a look at the paper related to that chosen characteristic, and then with your understanding of that characteristic, have a look at some of the teaching activities you currently have. See if you might be able to modify one or even develop a new one that really focuses on or incorporates the characteristic that you chose to engage your students as they work remotely.

The video we watched earlier talked about using a range and balance of approaches overtime, so will now go in and briefly unpack the approaches of age appropriate pedagogies, and have a think about what approach or approaches you might be able to use to support the students in your context to engage in learning at this particular point in time, again, which for many or all of your students will be working remotely.

The teacher's role in enacting arrange and balance of age appropriate pedagogies involves deliberate, purposeful, and thoughtful decision making and action to promote students innate drive for independent learning. So, in the context of supporting your students from home. It's still going to be the same. You're still going to be purposely selecting an approach or variety of approaches is that will support your learners in that context. So let's have a look at the six approaches from the research.

The first approach is inquiry learning. Inquiry based learning begins with the question, problem or idea. Maybe involves the students in planning and carrying out investigations, proposing explanations and solutions, and communicating their understanding of concepts in various ways.

The second approach is an event based approach. Students ideas and decision making a central to an events based approach. They're encouraged to plan and enact events in real life context drawing on their experiences. And events based approach may include investigations, problem solving and play. It provides a context for learning that is sustained for the short and long term and provides opportunities for students to connect knowledge and practice. It draws on knowledge and experiences that a socially and culturally significant from home in the community when planning and acting events. So this approach has been identified as having positive impacts on literacy and numeracy learning.

The third approach is a project approach and a project approach is an in depth exploration of a topic that maybe student or teacher initiated and involve an individual, a group of students, or the whole class. So project could be short-term or long-term, again depending on the level of students interests and what differentiates the project approach from an inquiry one is that within the project approach there is an emphasis on the creation of a specific. Outcome that might take the form of a spoken report, multimedia presentation, poster, demonstration, or display. So the project approach provides opportunities for students to take agency if their own learning and represent this learning through the construction of personally meaningful artefacts.

The fourth approach is explicit instruction. Explicit instruction is a structured and systematic approach to teaching academic skills. It's characterised by a series of support or scaffolds whereby students are guided through the learning process with clear statements about the purpose and rationale for letting the new skill clear explanations and demonstrations of the instructional target and supported practice with feedback until independent mastery has been achieved. So in this there's an emphasis on proceeding in small steps, checking for understanding and achieving active and successful participation by all students.

The fifth approach is play based learning. Play based learning provides opportunities for students to actively and imaginatively engage with people, objects and the environment. Symbolic representation is a critical aspect in play based learning, so when playing students, maybe organising, constructing, manipulating, pretending, exploring, investigating, creating, interacting, imagining, negotiating, and making sense of their world. Play based learning promotes the holistic development so the physical, social, emotional, cognitive and creative side of a student and depending on how it's utilised may also support a broad range of literacy and numeracy skills. The teachers role in scaffolding play is pivotal.

The sixth and final approach is direct teaching or direct instruction. This direct teaching instruction is a step by step lesson by lesson approach to teaching a predetermined skill acquisition. So this approach to teaching is tightly paced, aimed at maximising time on task. It's also a general, it is also used as a general term for the teaching of skills by demonstrating and modelling.

A blended approach takes elements from more than one of these approaches. One of those six we’ve spoke about and a combined in response to the teaching and learning, intent and context.

As the teaching and learning context moves to teachers supporting their students remotely, think about how you might be able to incorporate a blended approach to support that learning. How might you include students thoughts and ideas into decision making about their learning? How might you develop a project that includes the three step process of planning, exploration and combination? What ways could you breakdown the content into manageable instructional units? How could you include opportunities for play within the learning program? Why might you consider using pre planned sequences of content and activities? How could you organise for learning experiences to extend beyond singular activities that can be repeated or returned to, and that lend themselves to active engagement in purposeful learning?

So at this time will take another pause for a task and will ask you to go back and have a look at that age appropriate pedagogies website again, and go in and select one approach and read the paper related to that chosen approach, using your understanding of that approach, you might look at current teaching activities or develop a new one that incorporates the approach to engage your students as they work remotely.

So we spoke in a little bit about the research in the foundations paper, we've unpacked the 11 characteristics and the six approaches of age appropriate pedagogies. So where to now?

As much as possible, we're trying not to disrupt the students learning and continue to use any existing classroom content to support our students remotely. So we're considering learning from home. What's the same? What's different? For thinking about some of the things that have the same, our syllabus remains the same. Our students remained the same and as a teacher al skills and expertise is still the same. On the flip side of that, what's different? We're looking at a very different delivery method from face to face, the daily schedule's not going to be how our classroom would normally run, and even communication is going to be very different because we can't have those into the incidental conversations in the classroom. So have a little think about a reflect on, what are you currently doing and what parts of current practice could you draw on to support this remote learning?

So in thinking about learning from home, it's important to plan for teaching wherever possible to ensure students learning is not compromised. So it's going to look different from that face to face teaching within the classroom environment, and it's going to include ideas to support learning in the home environment. You might be considering how you're going to deal with the differences. What might the barriers be? What could the possibilities be? What is contextually relevant for your students in your class, in your community? And what do you already have in place that could support students learning remotely?

So we'll take another pause at this point for a task and would like you to reflect on the differences between your classroom and the learning environments that your students will be working in remotely. Go into that age appropriate pedagogies website again, and read about the temporal environment in the approaches of age, appropriate pedagogies, inaction, learning environment paper. Using your understanding of that temporal environment, consider how you currently are or how you might manage your role as teacher. When your students are learning at home and plan how you might manage or organise the flow of your day, how will this work if you have students in your classroom as well as others at home? Have a think about and consider your already established structures of engaging with parents or carers, example do you use email? Are they contextually appropriate when your students are learning from home and if not what other structure or structures might work for your families and your students in your context? And go back and have a look at that flow of the day the organisation that you created and see if you can add any relevant information there.

There's a lot going on at the moment, but there is some resources and support available from the Department, so let's have a look at some of the places you might go for some support.

To find resources and activities to support students temporarily unable to attend school, go to the learning from home section of the department's website. You can go straight there from the home page. Click on access our resources. Teaching and learning resources. And on this page you will see providing units of work for learning from home or school advice for teachers curriculum. Specific resource is which includes early childhood resource is K to six resource is seven to 10 resource is and 11 to 12 resource is and also external links.

Virtual statewide staffrooms have been set up in Microsoft Teams as you prepare to teach remotely. So in those teams you can access support and resources to help your students learn from home. So I put up two here so you could join the K to 6 New South Wales staffrooms, which is for primary teachers or the early learning staff room which is more for our early years teachers from preschool to year two. So after you select a team, a request will be sent an your own approval will be sent within 24 hours.

We totally understand there is so much going on at the moment, but we would really love it if you took a couple of moments to fill out this evaluation form. Feedback about the professional learning and provide suggestions for us for future development of professional learning. So please access the QR code or the link on this page to access the evaluation.

We understand it is such a busy time for teachers and an overwhelming time really in education. So we really thank you for taking the time to access this professional learning.

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