The majority of evidence for small-group tuition has focused on low-attaining primary-school students from low socioeconomic backgrounds. There is a lack of research testing the efficacy of tutoring programs for high school students, though one study found a modest positive effect of a maths program on Year 9-12 students from low socioeconomic backgrounds.

Most of the evidence for small-group tuition comes from the UK and US, though there are some Australian studies which show positive effects. The Grattan report released 2020 analysed the evidence and recommended small-group tuition as the most cost-effective, evidence-based and practical solution to helping disadvantaged Australian students get back on track as quickly as possible. Grattan suggests that disadvantaged students could gain 4-5 months of learning from a 10-20 week tuition program, based on data from EEF.

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