Group size and ability levels
Evidence suggests that the smaller the group, the better, with the optimum size being 2-5 students per group. Once groups get larger than five students, there is a reduction in effectiveness. Small-group tuition is most effective when students with similar learning needs or ability levels are grouped together. Similarly, tuition should be targeted to the learning needs of the students and be relevant to regular in-class learning. This may require pre-assessment and ongoing collaboration with classroom teachers.
Lesson length and frequency
There is good evidence that small-group tuition is most effective when lessons are regular, short, and sustained over a period of months. Most successful tuition programs occur 3-5 times a week, for 20-50 minutes per session, repeated for at least 10-20 weeks. Generally, the youngest learners (PreK-Year 1) benefit from shorter sessions conducted more often, for example, 15-30 minutes, 4-5 times per week, while older learners benefit from longer sessions slightly less often, for example, 30-40 minutes, 3 times per week.
Timetabling and mode of delivery
Research suggests that tuition is most effective when delivered during school hours, although some reports suggest that tuition outside of school hours is just as effective. There is also some evidence that online tuition can be just as effective as when delivered in person, though this area needs more research. Timetabling of tuition needs to consider a range of factors, and so it is important to be flexible about when and where tuition should take place.