Classroom systems of support

Module 1 Introduction

Module 1 Introduction

Prior training


Prior to starting this course it is recommended that participants read the following:

Other suggested reading

Welcome and purpose of this professional learning

Positive behaviour for learning professional learning includes a series of trainings undertaken over time. Each training builds the capacity to implement positive learning and wellbeing supports relevant to students, school and classroom context across the Care Continuum. Training includes:

  • Introduction to Positive Behaviour for Learning (prerequisite course)
  • Tier 1 Universal prevention: school-wide systems
  • Tier 1 Classroom systems of support
  • Tier 2 Targeted interventions and supports
  • Tier 3 Intensive individualised supports 
  • PBL in the preschool
  • PBL introduction to function behaviour assessment (FBA)

This professional learning:

  • focuses on preventing and early intervention of inappropriate behaviour in classrooms
  • builds teacher capabilities in environmental, behavioural and instructional supports and positive relationships:

Schools and teachers in their classroom:

  • design systems that fit their context, focusing on supporting staff to be consistent
  • collect and use data to inform decision-making
  • put evidence-based teaching and learning practices in place that encourage appropriate behaviour.

This course was based on PBIS Missouri and contextualised for NSW Department of Education schools.

Learning intentions

By the end of this course, participants will be able to:

  • understand classroom positive behaviour for learning
  • develop, implement, monitor and evaluate positive relationships within the classroom; and environmental, behavioural and instructional supports within the classroom
  • use data to inform decision making
  • explain the benefits of positive, proactive and instructional approach to behaviour management.

Module 2 Relationships

Module 2 Relationships

Building positive relationships between staff and students so students feel connected. They are then more likely to succeed and thrive in their school environment.

Encouraging positive behaviour through relationships

The importance of good teacher-student relationships

Positive professional relationships with students (and their parents/carers) are fundamental to effective behaviour management and communication.

Consider the following quote:

“The studies show that the best teacher-student relationships form when the teacher gives strong guidance, and shows clear purpose as well as concern for the needs of others and a desire to work as a team.” (Marzano et al, 2003, as cited in Grattan Institute 2017, p. 22)

The 2x10 strategy

The 2×10 strategy is simple: spend 2 minutes per day for 10 days in a row talking with an at-risk student about anything she or he wants to talk about.

Students who seemingly deserve the most punitive consequences are the ones who most need a positive connection. They need that positive connection before they can focus on learning content.

Positive greeting at the door

Research indicates that having positive greeting door strategy produced significant improvements in academic engaged time and reductions in inappropriate behaviour. Teachers indicated that positive door greetings are feasible, reasonable and acceptable as a strategy for welcoming students into the classroom, get students ready to learn and gauge student behaviour.

The main features of the positive door greeting procedures include:

  • positive verbal or non-verbal interactions with students as they enter the classroom to establish a positive climate and provide behaviour specific praise,
  • pre-corrective statements to prevent inappropriate behaviour, and
  • prompts delivered to the entire class to attend to the class activity schedule and remind them of the time when learning will begin.

Teachers develop positive door greetings that they are comfortable with participating in, for example, saying hello to each student and using their name or friendly comment. This helps ensure that every student is known, valued and cared for.

Wrap up

The teacher-student relationship is the fundamental element of classroom climate.

  • Use verbal and non-verbal prompts.
  • Take opportunities to get to know the students and how they learn.
  • Relate to students in a calm, firm and fair manner.
  • Model the interaction you expect.

Remember: positive relationships make behaviour management easier.

Module 3 Environmental management

Module 3 Environmental management

The physical environment has a significant influence on learning. It gives students clear messages about how teachers value them and their learning.

Environmental management

Within the classroom, environmental management includes:

  • What you want your classroom to look like?
  • Where should students be seated?
  • What should it feel like to be a class member or visitor?
  • How will students access resources?
  • How will you regulate movement and interaction?

Essential features of environmental management

Essential features of classroom environment management that must be considered by each teacher includes:

  • lighting
  • seating plans
  • displays
  • designated areas
  • clutter free
  • furniture arrangement
  • space to move safely
  • schedules/timetables
  • storage
  • temperature
  • technology
  • ventilation.

The importance of a seating plan

Seating plans are fundamental to effective classroom environmental management. Seating arrangements can have a positive impact on teacher-student and student-student working relationships, communication and interaction; and engagement in learning, motivation and focus. It is important to consider which students work well together, and those who do not.

Physical arrangement: traditional classroom seating arrangements

When setting up and altering the physical arrangements of each learning space, teachers need to consider:

Consideration for the location of desks and seating arrangements includes:

  • where the teacher’s desk is positioned
  • where students' desks are positioned
  • putting desks where you can see students' eyes and they can see yours
  • making sure pathways should be clearly defined and separate from work areas.

Additional advice:

  • Large, open spaces may invite inappropriate physical activities and should be avoided.
  • The teacher desk be located out of the way to encourage movement around the room.
  • Instructional materials be easily accessible and retrieved.
  • If using flexible learning spaces to increase student engagement and encourage collaboration, were will it be located, when will it be used, how will students know how to effectively use it and return it at the end of learning.

Guidance for sight lines include:

  • teacher positions
  • don’t segment room
  • don’t put things in rooms that block site lines.

How will everyone move around the classroom as needed for associated activities (for example pencil sharpening, getting water, using the bathroom, beginning and end of day and transition times).

Proactive teacher behaviours

Proactive teacher behaviours to create a positive climate

Proactive teacher behaviour helps create a positive classroom climate. Preferred adult behaviours that impact student compliance, learning, and connection to school include:

  • proximity
  • listening
  • eye contact (when culturally appropriate)
  • use of pleasant voice
  • smiling
  • use of student’s name.

Effective teacher behaviours increase the probability of success

Effective classroom managers are known, not by what they do when inappropriate behaviour occurs, but by what they do to set their classroom up for academic success and prevent problems from occurring. An effective teacher creates a set of circumstances that increase the probability of success now and for the future.


  • Teacher facilitated
  • Direct and explicit
  • Authentic examples
  • Multiple opportunities
  • Engages students
  • Arranges physical spaces
  • Develops routines and procedures
  • Consistent across time and students
  • Communicates often
  • Conveys genuine interest in students
  • Maintains role of encouraging teacher

Wrap up

Classroom environment considers:

  • well organised learning spaces
  • light and ventilation
  • seating plan
  • accessible resources
  • attractive, stimulating displays
  • role of teacher behaviour in establishing classroom climate.

The physical environment has a significant influence on learning, it gives a student clear messages about how we value them and how we value learning.

Module 4 Behaviour management

Module 4 Behaviour management

Classroom expectations and rules

The key is that behaviour is functionally related to the teaching environment. Where the behaviour is what the student “does” and the teaching environment is all that happens before, during and after the student’s behaviour including interactions with adults and peers.

Teachers set up teaching environments that promote positive behaviour through the use of consistent and clear classroom expectations and rules.

Clear and consistent classroom expectations and rules:

  • create a vision of a successful student/teacher
  • enhance safety through predictability
  • allow proactive teaching of behaviours for success
  • communicate a positive message to students and parents about a success at school
  • provide a framework to guide teacher decisions about behaviour management
  • validate and support individual teachers’ procedures and requests.

Expecations should be:

  • consistent and align with a school-wide system
  • unique to the classroom needs.

To do this:

  1. Start with school-wide expectations
  2. Identify which problems are occurring in the classroom
  3. Identify the replacement behaviours
  4. Identify the skills/areas of need
  5. Develop 1-2 rules per expectation

By adding school-wide classroom expectations to the school-wide matrix, everyone knows that these are the expectations and rules for all classrooms in the schools. More information about this can be found in the PBL School-wide systems of support training.

Teachers then develop their own matrix for their classroom, based on the needs of their classroom and teaching.

Each behavioural expectation and rule must be observable, measurable, positively stated, understandable and always applicable (the OMPUA guidelines) .

Other considerations

  • Students have a role in formulating rules
  • Rules should be easy to reinforce and correct
  • Rules should be age and setting appropriate
  • Explicitly teach and practice classroom rules
  • Teacher models and reinforces consistently
  • Rules need to be displayed in a prominent position.

A good package of rules includes: movement around the classroom, talking, work completion, readiness and compliance, and focusses on what is relevant to your classroom at that time.

Remember, classroom rules need to be specific to your current classroom and use language and visual prompts as required by the learning needs of your students.

Module 5 Instructional management

Module 5 Instructional management

Instructional management aims to increase engaged time in learning by using a range of instructional strategies.

Active supervision

Active supervision is an opportunity to:

  • observe student performance for both academic and social behaviours
  • provide relevant feedback (praise)
  • provide correction (proactive)
  • encourage efforts
  • build positive adult-student relationships.

Active supervision consists of 3 general components:

  1. Teachers move among students, visiting problem areas frequently, discretely making their presence known, and scan the environment frequently (looking for both appropriate and inappropriate displays of behaviour).
  2. Active supervisors interact frequently with a variety of students by having conversations, providing pre-corrections and reminders, and teaching appropriate behaviours.
  3. Teachers give frequent positive reinforcers for displays of appropriate behaviours.

Ensure you are moving constantly. Consider that:

  • your presence is known and obvious
  • frequent proximity to non-compliant students
  • target problem areas.

To ensure you are scanning effectively, consider:

  • all students observed regularly
  • make eye contact with students
  • look and listen for signs of a problem.
  • proximity to students.

Consider the physical environment:

  • seating
  • sight lines
  • traffic flow.

Positive contacts

  • Friendly, helpful and open
  • Proactive

Positive reinforcement

  • On time
  • On target

Corrective responses

  • Non-argumentative
  • Specific to behaviour
  • Systematic – correct, model, practise, reinforce

Deliver consequences

  • Neutral demeanour
  • Fair

Multiple opportunities to respond

Teachers provide multiple opportunities for students to respond to questions and learning. A teacher presents an instructional question, statement, or gesture that promotes student responses. The teacher then provides feedback to students based on responses. There are two basic types of opportunities to respond: verbal responses and non-verbal responses.

What are opportunities to respond?

Teacher behaviour that prompts or solicits a student response such as:

  • reading aloud.
  • writing answers to a problem.
  • verbally answering a question.
  • responding to a teacher’s cue.

The value of providing opportunities to respond

  • Increased rates of responding and subsequent improved learning, tend to increase the amount of work that can be covered.
  • On-task behaviour and correct responses increase, while disruptions decrease.
  • Shown to improve reading and math performance.
  • Provides continual feedback for the teacher on student learning and the effectiveness of teaching strategies.

Guidelines for response rates

  • Teacher talk should be no more than 40-50% of instructional time.
  • New material, a minimum of 4-6 responses per minute with 80% accuracy.
  • Review of previously learned material 8-12 responses per minute with 90% accuracy.
  • Increase wait time to 3 seconds.

Response strategies

Verbal strategies

  • Students respond orally to teacher prompts or questions.
  • Individual questioning or choral responding.

Non-verbal strategies

  • Student or teacher uses a signal, card, writing or movement to respond.

Strategies to increase student’s opportunity to respond

Are all students called upon?

  • Use a seating chart and mark off when a student is called on to answer an academic question.
  • Draw students’ names from a jar.

  • Choral responding is an instructional technique in which the teacher gives an instructional prompt or signal to which students generate a reply and respond in unison.
  • Useful during large group instruction to increase student participation and increase opportunities to practice skills during the lesson.
  • Associated with higher rates of on-task behaviours and decreased inappropriate behaviours.

Cards, signs, or items simultaneously can be held up by all students to display their responses.

Types of response cards:

  • preprinted cards: yes/no, true/false, agree/disagree
  • preprinted cards with multiple answers: letters, numbers, parts of speech, characters in a story
  • write-on cards: 9x12 response cards and dry-erase markers
  • clean side of recycled paper
  • easy to manipulate, display and see.

Technology is interactive and can illustrate a concept through attractive animation, sound, and demonstration. They allow students to progress at their own pace and work individually or problem solve in a group.

Technology provides:

  • high levels of response opportunities.
  • immediate feedback.
  • enhanced motivation for learning.

Direct Instruction is a teaching model that emphasizes carefully planned lessons designed around small learning increments with clearly defined and prescribed teaching tasks.

The teacher decides the learning intentions and success criteria, makes these transparent to the students, demonstrates them by modelling, evaluates if they understand what they have been told by checking for understanding, and retelling them what they have told by tying it all together with closure.

Direct instruction characteristics:

  • explicit, systematic instruction based on scripted lesson plans
  • ability grouping
  • emphasis on pace and efficiency of instruction
  • frequent assessment
  • quick pace helps keep students on task
  • new material is worked on in highly interactive format.

Activity sequencing and choice

For students who can do the assigned academic work but do not choose to do it, activity sequencing and choice strategies may be helpful.

  • Activity Sequencing: Altering the way in which instructional tasks, activities or requests are ordered (task interspersal and behaviour momentum).
  • Choice: Providing options in activities such as the type, materials, who, where and when they occur.

Activity sequencing: Task interspersal

Task interspersal is a simple strategy of interspersing academic tasks that have already been mastered with a few new concepts

Research suggests:

  • Students are more likely to engage in a task if it does not require significant effort
  • Error rates are higher during the acquisition stages of learning
  • Interspersing easier tasks among more difficult tasks and using simple instructions to proceed more difficult instructions have demonstrated increased student willingness to do the task
  • Students prefer assignments with a mix of already mastered tasks with new tasks
  • · Interspersing tasks that have already been mastered within the assignment can promote greater confidence and motivation to both begin and finish the activity.

Activity sequencing: Behaviour momentum

Behaviour momentum is a similar strategy that uses the momentum of easier tasks to build motivation to complete more challenging tasks.

  • Used to build confidence with students who may not otherwise attempt a more difficult activity.
  • Can be used with individual students, small groups or the entire class.

How to use behaviour momentum:

  • Identify behaviours that have a higher probability of completion
  • Then precede with more difficult requests by giving three or more requests the student can readily do.

After successful completion:

  • Reinforce the student
  • Then present the task that is known to have a lower probability of being completed
  • Again, reinforce the student
  • Gradually reduce the number of easier requests.

Providing choice

Providing opportunities for students to make choices has been demonstrated to be an effective intervention in preventing inappropriate behaviour and increasing engagement.

Benefits of providing choice

  • Feasible and easy intervention to implement
  • Effective for class, group or individual students
  • Does not require significant modification to existing instruction.

Strategies for offering choice

Choice might include:

  • type of activity or mode of the task such as written, oral, project
  • the order or sequence of tasks to be completed
  • the kinds of materials to be used
  • who to work with (for example group pairs, individual)
  • place to work
  • what will be done when the work is completed.

Steps for using choice in the classroom

  1. Create a menu of choices you would be willing to provide to students
  2. Look through your choice menu before planning each lesson
  3. Decide what types of choice are appropriate for the lesson and where they fit best in the lesson
  4. Provide choices as planned while teaching the lesson
  5. Solicit student feedback and input.

Task difficulty

Task difficulty relates to work assignments that exceed the student’s skill level.

  • Providing appropriately adjusted tasks decreases inappropriate behaviour and increases opportunities for academic success.
  • Work assignments that are too difficult for students or require them to use skill sets that are challenging for them, commonly result in inappropriate behaviour.
  • Providing tasks at the correct level of difficulty increases and promotes on-task behaviour, task completion, task comprehension and appropriate class-wide behaviour.
Consider aspects of the student, the materials and the task.

Types of adjustments

  1. Content, what students learn
  2. Process, how students learn
  3. Product, how student demonstrates what they have learned
  4. Environment, the surroundings in which students learn

  • Academics are accurately matched to student’s ability, but the length of the assignment exceeds student motivation or endurance
  • Decreasing overall task length or offering periodic breaks to do something else can decrease inappropriate behaviour and aid task completion.

  • The mode that is required to complete a task can contribute to inappropriate behaviour
  • Reading or fine motor difficulties often make reading or writing tasks appear overwhelming
  • Providing an alternative mode (for example computer, voice recorder, paired student reading) may reduce behaviour problems.

  • Using instructional strategies that are appropriate to the student’s stage of learning is essential
  • Some students may not be at the same stage of learning as other students e.g. acquisition level, fluency building, mastery or generalisation
  • For some students, they can learn and do the work if there is more teaching, guided practice or fluency-building activities.

Examples of adjustments

  • Have shorter work periods with other assignments in between
  • Provide physical breaks between difficult tasks
  • Provide alternative times for students to complete their work.

  • Highlight in a colour, the problems for students to complete
  • Have the student cover all tasks except the one they are working on at the time
  • Break assignments into chunk.

  • Include illustrations on worksheets describing how to complete tasks
  • Highlight and/or underline important words in instructions and texts
  • Create guided notes that highlight key points.

  • Provide choice of written or oral answers
  • Permit students to use outlining software to facilitate planning
  • Allow students to video or take pictures to produce journals or compose essays.

  • Different instructional strategies than were presented during initial instruction – incorporate multiple representations
  • Arrange for additional brief instruction using modelling. Then guided practice, then independent practice if student is in the acquisition stage
  • If student understands the content but needs more practice arrange a peer tutor
  • Use flash cards to increase fluency.

Wrap up

Active supervision

There are 3 components: moving, scanning, interacting.

  • Allows for provision of immediate learning assistance to students
  • Increases student engagement
  • Reduces inappropriate and increases appropriate behaviour
  • Provides knowledge on whether students are using expectations
  • Allows for frequent use of encouragement
  • Allows for timely correction of behavioural errors
  • Builds positive adult student relationships

Opportunities to respond

Strategies for increasing student opportunities for response include:

  • Verbal strategies: students respond orally to teacher prompts or questions
  • Individual questioning
  • Choral response
  • Non-verbal strategies includes students using a signal card, writing or movement to respond.

Other strategies:

  • Computer assisted instruction
  • Class wide peer tutoring
  • Direct instruction

Activity sequencing and choice

For students who can do the work but choose not to do it consider:

  • activity sequencing
  • task interspersal
  • behaviour momentum.

Offering Choice

Remember – every lesson doesn’t have to include all of the choices on your list, but if each lesson you teach provides at least one opportunity for choice, students are likely to benefit.

Task difficulty

  • Will the student be able to complete the work if adjustments (of content/ process/product or learning environment) are provided?
  • Content, for example using texts or novels at more than one reading level
  • Process, for example develop activities that target auditory, visual and kinaesthetic learners
  • Product, for example students to express what they have learned in varied ways
  • Learning environment, for example areas to work quietly without distraction and areas that invite collaboration

Module 6 Classroom systems of support

Module 6 Classroom systems of support

Creating classroom systems of support for sustainability purposes. Systems to support include systems to support data-based decision making, systems to support teachers, and systems to support sustainability.

Systems of data

Data supports teachers within the classroom identify students of concern, areas of strength and provides evidence of learning, teaching and resourcing.

There are 3 classroom systems of support including systems to support data, the teacher and sustainability.

Systems for data

Assessment tools to determine

  • Classroom practices in place
  • Priority areas for improvement
  • Procedures to monitor and track minor behaviours
  • Evidence to demonstrate the implementation of effective classroom practices
  • Big 5 data tool

Systems for Data: Assessment Tool to Support Classroom Practices

An internal self-assessment tool which assesses the extent to which PBL systems, data and practices and are in place in the Tier 1 School-wide systems training.

Implementation of positive behaviour for learning systems and practices should be undertaken annually and results from the data analysis used for planning where to from here. Evaluation tools, for example, the Tiered Fidelity Inventory or Benchmarks of Quality, can be used.

Systems for Data: Data analysis

In the monthly data review:

  • Do the numbers of minor referrals indicate improvement in classroom managed behaviour?
  • Do you need to analyse the data further?

Use data to determine level of support required for teachers.

Systems to Support Staff

Schools with an effective approach to teacher performance and development have a commitment to ongoing formal and informal feedback and coaching built into their culture. Timely, frequent and improvement focused feedback supports teachers’ efforts to improve their practice, guides choices about professional learning, and informs reflection on and revision of performance and development goals.

Collaborative cultures in which teachers focus on improving their teaching practice, learn from each other, and are well led and supported by school principals result in better learning for students.

  • Brief in-service, single topic focus
  • School-wide professional learning to strengthen consistency of PBL implementation
  • Booster support for ‘targeted’ groups of teachers e.g. PDP focuses
  • PBL induction for new school members, for example teachers including executives, SLSO, SAS staff, General Assistants, other staff and volunteers

  • Staff apply practice in the classroom
  • Peer coaching/mentoring
  • Opportunity to receive performance feedback
  • Self-reflection, for example checklists and activities

  • Praise
  • Reward
  • Celebrate

Professional learning

A model of the process of teacher change

  • staff development
  • change in teacher practice
  • change in student outcomes
  • change in teacher beliefs


  • Informed by current research
  • Focussed on student outcomes
  • Timely
  • Linked to school plan
  • Solution focussed
  • Matched to teacher need (differentiated as required)

Future focussed

  • Future needs
  • Innovation
  • Develops high skills
  • Research and inquiry
  • Develops own theories
  • Adapt to change


  • Observation
  • Reflection
  • Learning from expert knowledge
  • Coaching/mentoring
  • Creating learning communities
  • Seeking feedback

  • Preparation: Set a schedule (who and when), all staff members have opportunity to observe a peer and to be observed by a peer, select data collection method, paper/pencil, Inform staff
  • Introduction: (10 minutes) Explain purpose of observations (and that it is not evaluative), opportunity to look at classroom system practices - expectations and rules, procedures, routines, feedback
  • Observation: Observe and collect data (20 minutes) during an instructional period, important to clarify that not observing individual students. Focus on expectations and rules aligned with matrix, evidence of behavioral routines and responding to all behaviour. Also observe the number and types of feedback statements teachers give to students about behaviour. Leave positive specific feedback for classroom teacher
  • Debrief & discuss (10 minutes after class): Use open-ended questions, affirmations, reflections, summaries: What did you see? How well did that work? Was there anything that surprised you?
  • Follow up (after observations): Data and feedback given to the PBL team, all classroom tallies collated, averages school-wide, totaled, no individual teacher data submitted. Provide a list of “strengths” and “things to consider”. Use this information to action plan (areas for development, professional learning etc).
  • All staff complete the staff perception survey sent out (Self-Assessment Survey SAS). Include the information in the action plan.
  • Data is shared with full staff
  • Input from staff used to generate action plan items

Systems to support sustainability

Systems for Sustainability

It is important to embed classroom positive behaviour into current departmental priorities and school policies, procedures and plans. Consider:

  • NSW curriculum (personal and social capabilities)
  • Professional Teaching Standards and Personal Development Plans (PDP)
  • Wellbeing Framework for Schools
  • School Excellence Framework
  • School Improvement Planning and analysis.

Plan for Implementation

Develop a schedule for training staff in classroom systems:

  • Assess what classroom practices staff already know and use (data, display, cool tools, peer observations etc)
  • Choose one practice at a time and train staff
  • Provide additional support/review learning as required – key topics, resources, tools
  • Plan for new staff and casual teachers.

Postive behaviour for learning meetings

  • Positive behaviour for learning team meeting suggestions:
  • Schedule regular PBL meetings (at least monthly)
  • Use a standard agenda (with suggested times for each agenda item)

During meetings:

  • Clearly define goals, objectives, and outcomes
  • Acknowledge all contributions
  • Follow-up on previous tasks
  • Discuss classroom management supports required
  • Examine data for decision-making
  • Monitor agenda times, keep a record of meetings minutes (actions) and communicate to all stakeholders

Responsibilities of positive behaviour for learning team to sustain classroom systems

  • Ensure that the following is undertaken:
  • Classroom expectations developed and displayed
  • Classroom reward systems linked to school wide systems
  • Classroom systems for inappropriate behaviours linked to school wide systems
  • Data collection and analysis linked to school wide systems
  • Communication with students, whole school staff, parents and community
  • Contribute to annual School Improvement analysis and planning
  • Contribute to School Management Plans

Wrap up

Four basic recommendations

  1. Never stop doing what is already working. If it's not working, undertake and evaluation to determine if it can be adjusted or removed.
  2. Always look for the smallest change that will produce the largest effect; avoid defining a large number of goals and do a small number of things well
  3. Do not add something new without also defining what you will stop doing to make the addition possible
  4. Collect and use data for decision-making and action planning

Module 7 References and bibliography

Module 7 References and bibliography

Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership (AITSL) (2014). Australian professional standards for teachers.

Centre for Education and Statistics and Evaluation (2020). Classroom management - Creating and maintaining positive learning environments, NSW Department of Education.

Centre for Education and Statistics and Evaluation (2020). What works best: 2020 update, NSW Department of Education.

Cook, C., Fiat, A., Larson, M., Daikos, C., Slemrod, T., Holland, E., Thayer, A., & Renshaw, T. (2018). Positive Greetings at the Door: Evaluation of a Low-Cost, High-Yield Proactive Classroom Management Strategy. Journal of Positive Behaviour Interventions, 20(3), 149-159.

Department of Education, S. and E.-D. library. (2020, February 18). The Alice Springs (Mparntwe) Education Declaration | Department of Education, Skills and Employment - Document library, Australian Government.

Department of Education and Training (2005). Disability Standards for Education 2005.

Emmer, E., & Sabornie, E. (Eds.). (2014). Handbook of classroom management. New York: Routledge.

Goss, P., Sonnemann, J., & Griffiths, K. (2017). Engaging students: creating classrooms that improve learning. Grattan Institute.

Hattie, J. (2009). Visible Learning. A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. London, England: Routledge.

Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education. Missouri Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support. (2022). Retrieved from

NSW Department of Education. School Excellence Framework.

NSW Department of Education (2020). The Wellbeing Framework for Schools.

NSW Department of Education (2022). Achieving school excellence in wellbeing and inclusion,

Oliver, R. M., Lambert, M. C., & Mason, W. A. (2017). A Pilot Study for Improving Classroom Systems Within Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 27(1), 25–36. Taken from Centre of Education Statistics and Evaluation (2020), Classroom management – creating and maintaining positive learning environment, NSW Department of Education,

Scott, T. M., Park, K. L., Swain-Bradway, J., & Landers, E. (2007). Positive behaviour support in the classroom: facilitating behaviorally inclusive learning environments. International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy, 3(2), 223-235.

Module 9 Where to from here

Module 9 Where to from here

Positive Behaviour for Learning is a long-term commitment and can take a few years to implement. From here:

  • determine needs and competing priorities of school
  • establish or regenerate a positive behaviour for learning team
  • evaluate current school systems and practices using the Benchmarks of Quality or Tiered Fidelity Inventory. A score of 80% indicates your school is ready for the additional training. Sometimes, you may need to retrain in school-wide and classroom systems to strengthen these systems and practices.
  • undertake the training that you and/or your school identifies as a priority and need.
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