Maths A to Z
Our Maths A to Z glossary provides straightforward explanations and illustrated examples of maths terms used in the classroom.
Our Maths A to Z glossary provides straightforward explanations and illustrated examples of maths terms used in the classroom.
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All measurements are approximations.
The accuracy of the measurement depends on the quality of the instrument being used and the person measuring.
An angle less than 90 degrees.
The red lines illustrate some angles that are acute (less than 90 degrees).
A triangle with all interior angles less than 90 degrees.
Combining a collection of things together:
The process of combining collections of objects into a larger collection.
This is the opposite of subtraction.
Add, addition, plus and sum are related terms.
A strand of mathematics that substitutes symbols or letters for unknown numbers.
A simple algebraic equation could be:
2x + 3 = 15
2x = 12
x = 6
A step-by-step method for solving problems in mathematics.
When two lines are cut by a third line (transversal) alternate angles are between the pair of lines on the outside of the transversal. If the two lines are parallel, the alternate angles are equal.
A clock with a face and two rotating hands – the minute hand (long) and the hour hand (short) – also sometimes another hand for seconds.
The measure of turn between two straight lines that meet.
A protractor is used to measure an angle. Angles are measured in degrees.
The highest point or vertex in a plane shape, polyhedron or geometric solid.
Part of the circumference of a circle.
The amount of surface inside a closed flat (2D) shape.
The area of this rectangle is 2 × 4 = 8 square units.
The two lines that form the angle.
A rectangular diagram divided into rows (horizontal) and columns (vertical).
This array has 3 rows and 4 columns.
Increasing from smallest to largest.
These numbers are in ascending order.
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6...
The attributes of a 2D shape are its size or shape. A 2D shape can have more than one attribute.
For the scores 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 5, 6, 9, and 10:
A graph in which the information is summarised into columns for easy comparison. Bar chart and column graph are interchangeable terms.
The side of a 2D shape or face of a 3D object that is considered on the bottom of that shape.
Blocks used to help children visualise the value of numbers. Except for the individual unit blocks, all other blocks are based on tens, hence the reason why they are often referred to as 'base ten blocks'. Multi-attribute blocks and base ten blocks are interchangeable terms.
To cut in half.
A diagram that indicates the middle 50% of the scores, with a box with lines (whiskers) drawn to the extremes (end scores).
A system of organising time into days, weeks, months and years.
The amount a container can hold.
This container holds 2 litres – its capacity is 2 litres.
A number expressing how many of something exist.
Information that can be put into different non-numerical groups.
A survey of the entire population.
The point inside the circle which is the same distance from all points on the circumference.
A line that joins two points on a curve.
The boundary line or perimeter of a circle.
An instrument used to keep and display the time.
There are many different kinds of clocks, but the two most common are analog with 'hands' for hours, minutes and seconds, and digital, which displays only digits (numbers).
Where most of the scores are grouped in a set of scores.
The scores are clustered around the scores 3 and 4.
When two lines are cut by a third line (transversal) co-interior angles are between the pair of lines on the same side of the transversal. If the lines are parallel the co-interior angles are supplementary (add up to 180 degrees).
Co-interior
A vertical arrangement of items.
A column of numbers:
23
45
67
92
64
83
A graph in which the information is summarised into columns for easy comparison. Bar chart and column graph are interchangeable terms.
Fraction shown with one number over another with a dividing line, e.g. ½.
The directions shown on a compass. Some examples include: North (N), South (S), East (E), West (W). Also North East (NE), South East (SE), South West (SW) and North West (NW).
One number is rounded to simplify the calculation then the answer is adjusted to compensate for the original change.
For addition:
52 + 39...
Think 52 + 40 = 92, then subtract the extra 1 added to 39 at the start.
So, 52 + 40 − 1 = 91
Angles that add to 90 degrees.
Has more than two factors.
Interest is calculated on the sum invested (principal) as well as on any interest earned.
If an event is represented as 'E', the complimentary event is
A = P(1+R)^{n} and I = A-P where:
A 3D (three-dimensional) object with a circular base and an apex.
The same size and the same shape.
Quantitative (numerical) data that is obtained by measuring.
Examples:
Used to convert from one unit to another.
Convex quadrilaterals have the diagonals inside the figure.
A set of numbers and/or letters that shows the position of a point or space on a map or grid.
The horizontal direction is always read first.
When two lines are cut by a third line (transversal) corresponding angles are in corresponding positions (i.e. on the same side of the transversal and both above or both below the pair of lines). If the lines are parallel, the corresponding angles are equal.
The shape you get when a solid is cut through parallel to the base.
The cross-sections of prisms are uniform, which means they are the same size and shape as the base.
The cross-sections of pyramids and cones have the same shape
A cube is a square prism, which is a particular type of prism with faces that are all congruent squares. It has 6 faces, 12 edges and 8 corners (or vertices).
∛125 = 5 since 5 × 5 × 5 = 125
5^{3}, pronounced 'cubed', gives 5 × 5 × 5 = 125.
A three-dimensional (3D) object with two circular bases that are opposite each other in position and are the same size and same shape.
A polygon with 10 straight sides and 10 interior angles. If all sides and angles are equal, it is called a regular decagon. If not, it is called an irregular decagon
A fraction that is made by dividing a whole into tenths (10 equal parts), hundredths (100 equal parts) or thousandths (1000 equal parts). A fraction uses a decimal point when written.
Decimal and decimal fraction are interchangeable terms.
A measurement used for angles shown by the degrees symbol °.
Degrees is the plural of degree.
A unit of measurement used for temperature. The symbol is °C.
The number below the line in a fraction that shows the number of parts a whole has been divided into.
The 8 in the fraction 7⁄8.
Depreciation occurs when an item loses value over time.
D = P(1 − r)^{n}
Where:
Numbers getting smaller. Decreasing from largest to smallest.
These numbers are in descending order:
A line that joins any two vertices (corners) of a polygon or polyhedron, where the vertices are not next to each other.
An chord across a circle through the centre (twice the radius).
The result of subtraction.
The difference between 10 and 16 is 6 (i.e. 16 – 10 = 6)
A symbol used to write a numeral. The digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 are used to write all the numbers in our number system.
Digital means the binary format of 1s and 0s (on or off). Digital can also refer to electronic products, such as a digital camera, MP3 player or eBook reader.
A digital product such as a camera transforms an analog image into data (a series of 1s and 0s) which is then transferred into a storage device and reassembled so that you see the original image. Analog cameras store the image onto film, which is then processed into prints. You can make a huge variety of changes to digital imagery which you cannot make to photo prints.
An eBook is a digital representation of a book and can only be displayed on a computer, or an e-reader device, such as a Kindle.
The invention of digital and the development of electronic products and services have led to a revolution that, in general, has made products more widely available and easier to use.
Digital development will continue to create many new and amazing new careers for your child to consider in the future.
To learn more about digital as a topic, you can search the internet for specific digital products and services to find websites that explain its benefits and how it works.
Displays the time in digits.
A positive or negative number.
A number showing both sign and size.
-7.5, + 6^{1}⁄_{2}, -3
The directed number line extends indefinitely in two directions to show both positive and negative numbers.
An example of discrete data is the number of goals scored in a netball game.
To share into equal groups or parts
Divide 6 chocolates between 3 children and they get 2 each
A rectangle cut into pieces representing the parts of a whole.
Favourite colours
A quick test to see if a number can be divided by another without remainder.
Partitioning into equal groups.
Represented by the symbol ÷
A three-dimensional (3D) object with 12 faces.
A number line with dots drawn above the numbers to represent the scores.
A relationship between the number of vertices (V), edges (E) and faces (F) of polyhedra. The relationship is V + F – E = 2.
In a rectangular prism, 8 vertices + 6 faces – 12 edges = 2.
The line where two flat surfaces meet.
An unmarked number line that shows mental calculations.
An unmarked number line
Using an empty number line (below) to show a jump strategy for addition and subtraction
Putting objects together in equal groups helps to understand multiplication and division. Equal groups contain the same number of items or objects
12 is divided into 3 equal groups giving 4 in each group
OR
3 equal groups with 4 in each gives 12 altogether.
Has the same value as.
Often shown by using the equals = sign (symbol).
Symbol used to show that two or more amounts have the same value.
eg. 5 + 6 = 12 – 1
A mathematical statement using the equal sign to show one side has the same value as the other side.
eg. 20 = 5 × 4
A triangle with all sides equal in length and all angles equal (60°).
Has the same value.
Fractions that are equal in value but have different names.
A type of measure which uses non-standard units such as hand spans, footsteps or pattern blocks to measure length, area, etc.
Estimate and informal measurement are interchangeable terms.
Any whole number ending in 0, 2, 4, 6, or 8 is even.
Any number that can be divided by 2 and give no remainder.
the numbers 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12...
Shows the amount each digit is worth because of its place in a number.
Expanded notation for 287 is 2 hundreds, 8 tens and 7 ones or 200 + 80 + 7.
One of the flat surfaces of a 3D (three dimensional) object.
Groups of related facts in addition and subtraction, and multiplication and division.
Helps students understand the relationship between operations.
Addition and Subtraction
3 + 7 = 10
7 + 3 = 10
10 − 3 = 7
10 − 7 = 3
Multiplication and Division
3 × 4 = 12
4 × 3 = 12
12 ÷ 3 = 4
12 ÷ 4 = 3
A factor of a given number is a whole number that divides into it exactly.
The factors of 12 are 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 12
...1 × 12, 2 × 6 and 3 × 4 all equal 12.
A factor tree can be used to express a number as a product of its prime factors.
Numbers following a sequence in which each subsequent number is the sum of the previous two numbers.
This sequence starts with 1:
The numbers 1,1, 2, 3, 5, 8, ...
1 + 1 = 2, 1 + 2 = 3, 2 + 3 = 5, 3 + 5 = 8, 5 + 8 = 13
Turn over to give the mirror image – a reflection.
Using a standardised measure such as metres, litres or kilograms.
A fraction is one or more parts of a whole that has been broken into equal parts.
A fraction is shown by putting one number over another with a dividing line between them.
This shape has been broken into 4 parts and 3 of them have been coloured. The coloured fraction is 3-quarters or 3⁄4 .
A number in the form a⁄b where a and b are numbers and b is not equal to zero.
A perfectly round 3D object. Globe and sphere are interchangeable terms.
A visual way of showing a collection of information.
*The line graph should only be used for continuous data.
The sign > is used to show that the first number is greater than (more than) the second number.
The open (bigger) part is beside the bigger number, the small pointed end points to the smaller number.
85 is greater than 37 is written: 85 > 37.
'Is 85 greater than 37?' is written: is 85 > 37?
Putting objects together in groups helps to understand multiplication and division. Groups contain the same number of items or objects
12 is divided into 3 groups giving 4 in each group
OR
3 groups with 4 in each gives 12 altogether.
Holding objects to judge weight.
A polygon with 7 edges and 7 angles. If all sides and angles are equal, it is called a regular heptagon. If not, it is called an irregular heptagon.
A polygon with 6 edges and 6 angles. If all sides and angles are equal, it is called a regular hexagon. If not, it is called an irregular hexagon.
A solid with 2 parallel ends that are hexagons of the same size and shape (ie are congruent).
A solid with a hexagon as its base. Its other faces are triangles that meet at a common point (vertex).
A 3D (three-dimensional) object with 6 faces.
The highest common factor (HCF) of two or more whole numbers is the largest number that will divide exactly into each of them.
Parallel to the line or surface.
An organised grid of the numbers 0-99 or 1-100 to see and understand patterns in numbers to 100.
One part of a whole divided into 100 equal parts.
The longest side of a right-angle triangle that is also opposite to the right angle.
A 3D (three-dimensional) object with 20 faces.
A fraction where the numerator is equal to, or larger than, the denominator.
An index is more commonly called a power.
It is the small number written to the top right of a number in mathematics. Shows the number of times to multiply a number by itself.
Indices is the plural of index.
A number written with a power.
A type of measure which uses non-standard units such as hand spans, footsteps or pattern blocks to measure length, area, etc.
Estimate and informal measurement are interchangeable terms.
Any whole number. An integer can be positive or negative.
Interquartile range = upper quartile − lower quartile
The point where lines meet or the line where two or more planes meet.
intersection
Part of a line that has a definite start and end point.
The function that reverses another one. This is a way of checking if answers are correct.
Addition and subtraction are inverse operations.
Multiplication and division are inverse operations.
Grid paper used to draw 3D figures. The grid is a series of dots or lines which form equilateral triangles and allow for the drawing of a solid showing 3 or more faces.
isometric grid paper
A triangle with two sides equal in length and two angles that are equal.
Mental calculation method jumping from one number (usually the largest number) either forwards (addition) or backwards (subtraction) to the answer.
can have any number of digits 23 + 35; 23 + 30 = 53, 53 + 5 = 58
A quadrilateral with two pairs of equal adjacent sides, symmetrical only about one diagonal.
The longest dimension of an object.
The sign < is used to show that the first number is smaller than the second number. The pointed end points to the smaller number.
A line is a collection of points. A line does not have a start or end point, it go on forever.
A line that divides a shape in half so that one half is the mirror image of the other. There can be more than one line of symmetry.
Any written method used to divide by a number with two or more digits.
An example of long division may look like this:
The lowest common multiple or least common multiple (LCM) of two or more numbers is the smallest number that is a multiple of all of them.
The LCM of 10 and 12 is 60 as 60 is the smallest number that divides both 10 and 12 with no remainder.
The amount of matter in something.
For the scores 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 5, 6, 9, and 10:
Using a standardised measure such as metres, litres or kilograms.
An angle is the measure of turn between two straight lines which meet at a common point. A protractor is used to measure angles. Angles are measured in degrees °.
The middle score of an ordered data set.
Calculating in your head.
A number made up of a whole number and a proper fraction.
The score that occurs the most in a data set.
For the scores 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 5, 6, 9,10
Mode = 5
Blocks used to help children visualise the value of numbers. Except for the individual unit blocks, all other blocks are based on tens, hence the reason why they are often referred to as 'base ten blocks'. Multi-attribute blocks and base ten blocks are interchangeable terms.
The product of any quantity and a whole number.
The multiples of 3 are 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24...
The process of repeatedly adding the same number a given amount of times (this only relates to whole numbers).
Multiplication, times, products of, lots of, product, square, of (i.e. 1/4 of 8, 3 groups of 6)
The 5 times tables are:
1 × 5 = 5
2 × 5 = 10
3 × 5 = 15
4 × 5 = 20
5 × 5 = 25
6 × 5 = 30
7 × 5 = 35
8 × 5 = 40
9 × 5 = 45
10 × 5 = 50
A number raised to a negative power is the reciprocal of that number raised to the positive power.
A flat shape that can be folded up into a solid.
A polygon with 9 straight sides and 9 angles. If all sides and angles are equal, it is called a regular nonagon. If not, it is called an irregular nonagon.
The line can start and end on any number. A line is used to visualise number sequences or aid in computation.
The position of 43 on the numberline:
Adding 257 + 220:
Numberlines can represent fractions:
Using numbers and symbols in an equation.
Number sentence for 3 birds which have 6 eggs each: 3 × 6 = 18 or 6 + 6 + 6 = 18
The number above the line in a fraction which shows how many parts are being considered.
The 7 in ^{7}/_{9}.
An object has 3 dimensions – length, width and depth.
Solids drawn or shown on a slant. The sides are not perpendicular to the base.
An angle measuring between 90° and 180°.
Angles D and C are obtuse. Angles A and B are acute.
A triangle with one angle that is obtuse (greater that 90 degrees).
A polygon with 8 straight sides and 8 angles. If all sides and angles are equal, it is called a regular octagon. If not, it is called an irregular octagon.
A solid with 2 parallel bases that are octagons of the size and same shape.
A solid with an octagon as its base. Its other faces are triangles that meet at a common point (vertex).
A three-dimensional (3D) object with 8 faces.
Any number ending in 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 is odd.
The numbers 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, ...
Having one dimension ie length.
A line has only one dimension (i.e. length)
This is the number of times a shape matches the original in one full rotation.
An equilateral triangle can be turned 3 times and match its original shape exactly. It also has a rotational symmetry order of 3.
Tells the position of something in a sequence.
1st, 2nd, 15th, 100th
A value that 'lies outside' (is much smaller or larger than) most of the other values in a set of data.
In this data set: 1, 1, 3, 4, 5, 5, 6, 9, 10, 25
25 is an outlier
A triangular array of numbers in which each number in the triangle is the sum of the two directly above it.
Numbers that are the same if read forwards or backwards.
Lines on the same plane that are the same distance apart and never meet.
A polygon with 4 straight sides. The opposite sides are parallel and equal. The opposite angles are equal.
A pattern is made up of a number of elements that repeat.
This is a pattern – 2 elements repeat
A polygon with 5 straight sides and 5 angles. If all sides and angles are equal, it is called a regular pentagon. If not, it is called an irregular pentagon.
A solid with 2 parallel ends that are pentagons of the same size and shape (ie are congruent). All its other faces are rectangular.
A 3D (three-dimensional) object with a pentagon as its base. Its other faces are triangles that meet at a common point (vertex).
For each year (ie the interest rate on the mortgage was 7% per annum). Also referred to as p.a.
Means parts per 100 and is shown by the symbol %. A grid of 100 is used to show per cent. Per cent can also be expressed as percent, percentage or simply with the symbol %.
30 out of the 100 squares have been shaded, so 30% is shaded
Means parts per 100 and is shown by the symbol %. A grid of 100 is used to show per cent. Per cent can also be expressed as percent, percentage or simply with the symbol %.
The distance around the boundary of a 2D (two-dimensional) shape. Calculating the perimeter of a shape is equal to the sum of the length of all sides.
Perimeter of this trapezium is 6cm + 4cm + 3cm + 4cm = 17cm
At 90° to the given line.
The height measured at 90° from the base to the vertex at the top.
The amount a digit is worth due to its position in a number, ie, ones, tens, hundreds, thousands, etc.
A tool for showing the value of each digit in a whole number. Can be used to help with addition and subtraction.
The whole number 521 can be shown on a chart as:
Hundreds | Ten | Ones |
---|---|---|
5 | 2 | 1 |
521 + 47 can be shown on chart as:
Hundreds | Ten | Ones |
---|---|---|
5 | 2 | 1 |
+ | 4 | 7 |
5 | 6 | 8 |
A tool for showing the value of each digit in decimal fractions. Can be used to help with addition and subtraction of decimal fractions.
The decimal fraction 0.34 can be shown on the chart as:
Ones | Tenths | Hundredths |
---|---|---|
0 | 3 | 4 |
Any flat two-dimensional (2D) surface. Also known as face.
A set of five regular polyhedra. All the faces are congruent regular polygons and the same number of faces meet at each vertex. The platonic solids are: the cube (hexahedron), dodecahedron, icosahedron, octahedron, and tetrahedron.
Combining a collection of things together:
A point is a position in space. It has no length, width or height. Where two lines intersect. A point is named using a capital letter.
A two-dimensional (2D) shape having three or more straight sides. It can be a regular polygon – where all sides are the same length and all angles are the same size – or an irregular polygon.
All the items under consideration.
If data on the opinions of Year 8 is required, then the population is all of Year 8.
The location of an object in relation to oneself or another object.
The tree is to my left, the station is south-west of the school.
A factor that is a prime number cannot be divided again by a number other than itself or one.
Prime factors of 12 are 3 × 2 × 2 or 3 × 2^{2}
A number that has only 2 factors.
(Note that 1 is not a prime number as it only has one factor – the number 1.)
7 has only 2 factors: 1 and 7
The original amount of money borrowed or invested.
It may rain today but raining money is impossible.
P(red marble) = ^{1}⁄_{5}. The probability of randomly selecting a red marble from the bag is 1 in 5.
The answer when 2 or more numbers are multiplied together.
15 is the product of 3 and 5
The numerator (top number) is smaller than the denominator (bottom number) in a fraction.
A tool used to measure angles.
A famous result named after the Greek mathematician Pythagoras.
The theorem says that in any right angled triangle, the square of the length of the longest side is the same as the sum of the squares of the lengths of the other two sides: a^{2}+b^{2} = c^{2}.
A set of three integers (whole numbers) that obey Pythagoras' theorem.
That is the sum of the squares of the two smaller numbers is the square of the largest number.
A quarter of a circle or quarter of its circumference.
The answer when one number is divided by another.
The quotient when 18 is divided by 6 is 3.
An ancient number system represented by characters such as I(1), V(5), X(10), L(50), C(100), D(500) and M(1000).
The distance from the centre of the circle to the circumference of the circle. Radii is the plural of radius.
For the scores 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 5, 6, 9, 10. The range is 10 – 1 = 9.
A rate is used to compare quantities that are measured in different types of units.
A typist might type at a rate of 45 words per minute. This is written as 45 words/min.
ratio is a comparison of two or more quantities.
The ratio of stars to hearts is 4:3
The reciprocal of a fraction (not equal to 0) can be made by interchanging the numerator and the denominator.
The reciprocal of ^{2}/_{3} is ^{3}/_{2}.
To flip over or appear as a figure would look if shown in a mirror.
An angle between 180° and 360°.
The amount left over after a quantity has been divided onto another.
12 / 5 = 2 with remainder 2
An angle measuring 360°. A complete turn.
A quadrilateral with all sides equal, opposite angles equal and opposite sides parallel.
Counting with emphasis on rhythm or counting to a beat.
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 (all numbers are spoken, but the bold numbers are said more loudly).
An angle that measures 90°.
Right angles are shown like this:
A triangle with one right angle (90°).
A shape has rotational symmetry if an outline of the figure can be rotated or turned about its centre to match its original shape.
A regular hexagon comes to rest in 6 identical positions to it original shape
Items arranged horizontally.
A part of the population that has been selected in order to find information about the whole population.
The set of all possible outcomes of a situation or experiment.
The possible outcomes when tossing a die are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. The set would be {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}.
A drawing, which maintains proportions, shown bigger or smaller than real life. Common examples include maps or house plans.
A measurement of how much a diagram has been enlarged or reduced in a scale diagram.
A triangle which has sides of different lengths and where all angles are different.
A straight line that passes through two points on a circle or curve.
The flat surface you see after cutting through a solid in any direction.
Part of a circle between 2 radii (plural of radius).
Sports played:
The part of a circle that is between a chord and the circumference.
Half a circle.
To divide into equal or unequal groups.
Sharing 10 apples between 5 children gives 2 apples each.
The digits considered to be significant in reporting a measurement, irrespective of the location of the decimal place.
Two figures that look the same but one is an enlargement of the other. All proportions are maintained.
I = PRN where:
I = the simple interest
P = the principal
R = the interest rate per period, expressed as a decimal or fraction
N = the number of time periods.
Skew lines never touch each other but are not parallel. Skew lines only exist in 3D space.
Most of the data is clustered at one end.
Counting forwards or backwards in groups or multiples of a particular number.
4, 8, 12, ....
Slant height is the height from the base to the apex along a surface. This is at an angle to the base, not perpendicular.
To move the position without rotating it or turning it over. This is also called a translation.
Is any 3D (three-dimensional) object. The three dimensions are length, width and depth.
A perfectly round 3D object. Globe and sphere are interchangeable terms.
Mental computation method where numbers are 'split' according to their place value to make it easier to add them.
For 46 + 33 the numbers are split to become:
(40 + 30) + (6 + 3) = 70 + 9 = 79
A polygon with 4 straight sides where all sides are equal in length and all angles are equal (90°).
The result of multiplying a number by itself.
16 is a square number. It has 4 rows of 4, so 4 × 4 = 16
√25 = 5 since 5 × 5 = 25
A standard measure of the average spread of the scores about the mean.
An angle measuring 180°.
A way of working something out using known relationships, patterns and operations.
Immediately recognising the number of objects in a small collection without having to count them.
Seeing 5 immediately, without counting 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
Combining a collection of things together:
Supplementary angles add up to 180 degrees.
√3 is a surd
An object or shape has symmetry or is symmetrical when one half is the mirror image of the other half.
The spread of scores or results is symmetrical.
An object or shape has symmetry or is symmetrical when one half is the mirror image of the other half.
A way of presenting information in rows and columns for easy interpretation.
What pets do you own?
A straight line that touches a circle or curve at only one point.
An empty chart that has 2 rows of 5. This frame helps children to visualise the numbers 1 to 10.
Fits together without any spaces or overlaps.
A 3D (three-dimensional) object with 4 faces.
A solid has 3 dimensions
Has 3 dimensions – length, width and breadth – and has surfaces that are curved, flat or a combination of both. Flat surfaces that meet at the edges are called faces.
A solid has 3 dimensions
The products of numbers 0 to 10 multiplied by each other. Students are encouraged to learn and appreciate a range of mental strategies to work out the answers.
Multiplications may be shown in an organised way (such as the examples below) to assist in memorising the answers.
Multiplication tables and times tables are interchangeable terms
The 5 times tables:
1 × 5 = 5
2 × 5 = 10
3 × 5 = 15
4 × 5 = 20
5 × 5 = 25
6 × 5 = 30
7 × 5 = 35
8 × 5 = 40
9 × 5 = 45
10 × 5 = 50
Changing a quantity into smaller or bigger parts without changing its value. This method is used to make calculations easier.
541 minus 127 involves trading:
The result of sliding a figure without turning or flipping it, while maintaining its size.
A straight line that crosses two or more other lines.
A quadrilateral with at least one set of parallel lines.
Dan's walking track
A branching diagram used to list all the outcomes in a sequence of events.
A polygon with 3 straight sides and 3 angles. The sum of the angles in a triangle is 180°.
Number that can be represented by a triangular pattern of dots.
The first three triangular numbers 1, 3 and 6 can be represented by:
A pyramid with a triangle as its base. Its other faces are triangles that meet at a common point (vertex).
7:30 in the morning is 07:30, but 7:30 at night is 19:30 (midday 12:00 plus 7 ^{1}/_{2} hours).
Two-dimensional defines a space as having length and width. Two-dimensional and 2D are interchangeable terms
A flat shape has 2 dimensions
A cross section that is the same size and shape throughout a solid.
This solid has a uniform cross-section:
This solid does not have a uniform cross-section:
A fraction that has a numerator of 1.
Standard area units include:
Standard length units include:
Time is measured in units such as seconds, minutes, and hours:
Standard volume units include:
A cube has 8 vertices
A line that is at right angles to a horizontal plane.
A step-by-step method of addition, subtraction, multiplication or division.
Vertically opposite angles are created when two lines cross. These angles are equal in size.
Angles a and b are vertically opposite angles
Solid shapes look different depending on where they are seen from, eg front view, side view, top view.
Different views of this solid
The amount of space taken up by an object or substance, measured in cubic units.
This shape has a volume of 6 cubic units
Mass and weight are interchangeable in everyday usage but weight is a force which changes with gravity, while mass remains constant.
Any number that is not or does not include a fraction or a decimal.
2 or 84 or 6000
Any non-zero number to the power of zero is equal to one.
2^{0 }= 1, 5^{0 }= 1, 23^{0 }= 1