3.2: Science

Contents


3.2.1 Introduction
3.2.1.1 Rationale

3.2.2 Safety procedures and equipment
3.2.2.1 Emergency evacuation procedures
3.2.2.2 Fire safety equipment
3.2.2.3 Personal protection

(a) Eyes
(b) Hair
(c) Gloves
(d) Clothing
(e) Footwear

3.2.2.4 First aid equipment
3.2.2.5 Immediate emergency measures in the science laboratory

(a) Chemical splashes in the eye
(b) Chemical splashes on the skin
(c) Chemicals in the mouth
(d) Burns
(e) Inhalation of a toxic gas
(f) Hair on fire
(g) Clothing on fire
(h) Electric shock
(i) Severe cuts or wounds

3.2.3 Good practices in chemical safety in science
3.2.3.1 Bulk storage

(a) General storerooms
(b) Chemical stores
(c) Storage containers and their transport at school

3.2.3.2 Understanding and preparing chemicals

(a) Preparation rooms
(b) Chemicals kept in preparation rooms
(c) Techniques
(d) Labelling of decanted substances
(e) Transporting chemicals
(f) Glassware

3.2.3.3 Laboratories

(a) A safe laboratory
(b) Before a lesson
(c) During a lesson
(d) Bunsen burners
(e) Heating chemicals safely
(f) Smelling gases
(g) Spills
(h) Cleaning up
(i) Extended practicals

3.2.3.4 Handling laboratory chemicals safely - a summary
3.2.3.5 Microtechniques in chemistry
3.2.3.6 Investigative science
3.2.3.7 Use of chemicals by distance education students

3.2.4 Information about common dangerous or hazardous activities
3.2.4.1 Unauthorised experiments

(a) Use of animals
(b) Use of human tissue in experiments
(c) Use of starting pistols and caps

3.2.4.2 Potentially dangerous activities involving chemicals
3.2.4.3 Other potentially dangerous activities
3.2.4.4 Test tubes and heating
3.2.4.5 Electrical safety
3.2.4.6 Ionising radiation

(a) Radioactive sources and equipment
(b) General precautions when using radioactive sources
(c) Radiation exposure

3.2.4.7 Lasers

(a) Lasers that can be used in science
(b) Hazards in the use of lasers
(c) Laser safety precautions

3.2.4.8 Gas discharge tubes
3.2.4.9 Sources of high voltage
3.2.4.10 Model rocketry

3.2.5 Safe procedures for out of classroom/laboratory activities

3.2.5.1 School grounds
3.2.5.2 Field work/excursions
3.2.5.3 Industry visits

3.2.6 Safe use of biological materials/organism/tissues

3.2.6.1 Human blood, tissue and fluid
3.2.6.2 Microbiology
3.2.6.3 Gas-generating reactions: bio-gas and fermentation
3.2.6.4 Biotechnology

3.2.7 Disposal of unwanted materials
3.2.7.1 Broken glass
3.2.7.2 Sharps
3.2.7.3 Chemical waste bottles
3.2.7.4 Recycling some ideas
3.2.7.5 Biological waste

3.2.8 Appendices

Appendix 1: Good practise guides for six experiences of the 2 Unit Chemistry course

(a) Acids and bases: A quantitative study to determine the concentration of one of the reactants by titration
(b) Carbon chemistry: Refluxing of an organic reaction, e.g. esterification of alkanols
(c) Carbon chemistry: Distillation and boiling point (BP) determination
(d) Carbon chemistry: Separating aqueous and non-aqueous layers using a separating funnel
(e) Reactions involving ions which form gases: H2, CO2, H2S, SO2
(f) Carbon chemistry: Chemical test to differentiate between alkanes and alkenes (using Br2 and KMnO4)

Appendix 2: Information on gas preparation and handling

(a) Gas preparation
(b) Good practice guide for gas preparation
(c) Gas collection

Appendix 3: Technical information about concentrated acids and ammonia solution
Appendix 4: Science-related memoranda
Appendix 5: Sample safety audit of a science laboratory
Appendix 6: Sample school science safety policy
Appendix 7: Responsibilities for the Ionising Radiation Safety Officer
Appendix 8: Responsibilities for the Laser Safety Officer

3.2.9 Useful references for Science

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